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 Abhinavagupta's Paramārthasāra (Paramarthasara): Stanzas 67 to 70 - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir

Normal translation


 Introduction

Paramārthasāra continues with four more stanzas. This is the seventeenth set of stanzas, which is composed of 4 out of the 105 stanzas constituting the entire work.

Of course, I will also insert the original stanzas on which Yogarāja is commenting. I will write a "global long explanation" below the translation itself, as if I use the system based on individual &quo

Yogarāja's Sanskrit will be in dark green color while the original Abhinavagupta's stanzas will be shown in dark red color. In turn, within the transliteration, the original stanzas will be in brown color, while the Yogarāja's comments will be shown in black. Also, within the translation, the original stanzas by Abhinavagupta, i.e. Paramārthasāra, will be in green and black colors, while the commentary by Yogarāja will contain words in both black and red colors.

Read Paramārthasāra and experience Supreme Ānanda or Divine Bliss, dear Śiva.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Stanza 67

एवं स्वात्मप्रत्यवमर्शोपपत्त्या ज्ञानिना विगलितकर्मफलाभिलाषेण कृतमपि कर्म न फलाय — इत्यावेदयन्स्वानुभवसिद्धं लोकदृष्टान्तमाह


इति युक्तिभिरपि सिद्धं यत्कर्म ज्ञानिनो न सफलं तत्।
न ममेदमपि तु तस्येति दार्ढ्यतो नहि फलं लोके॥६७॥


अहमेव चिद्घनः स्वतन्त्रः सर्वप्रमात्रन्तरतमत्वेन सर्वकर्मकारी नाहं वा कर्ता पारमेश्वरी स्वातन्त्र्यशक्तिरित्थं करोति — इति मम शुद्धचैतन्यरूपस्यैतावता किमायातम् — इति युक्तिभिः प्राक्प्रतिपादितस्वरूपाभिरुपपत्तिभिर्व्याख्यातस्वात्मस्वरूपविदः प्रमातुरुभयथा देहाद्यहम्भावाभावाद्धेयोपादेयशून्यत्वेन यत्सिद्धं कर्म निष्पन्नमपि कृतं न सफलं न तत्फलेन युज्यते तस्यात्मज्ञानिनः प्रतिपादितवदुभयथा कृत्रिमत्वाभावात्कृतमपि कर्म कुत्र फलेन योगं कुर्याद्देहादिप्रमातृताभिमानस्वभावाश्रयाभावान्न कुत्रचित् — इति यावत्। कृतस्य कर्मणो या प्रमातुः फलाभिमानरूढिरेष एवाश्रयो ज्ञानिनस्त्वभिमानाभावात्स्वस्मिन्रूप एव प्रक्षीणं कर्म न फलेन सम्बध्यते — इति। नन्वभिमानादेव कर्म फलेन युज्यते — इति कुत्र यथा — इत्याह न ममेदमपि इत्यादि। दृष्टं चैतन्नापूर्वं यथा न ममेदं यज्ञादिकं कर्म अपि तु तस्य कस्याप्यर्थवतो यजमानस्य इति अनया बुद्ध्या कृतमपि यज्ञादिकं कर्म लोके मूल्यार्थितया फलाभिमानाभावान्न यतस्तत्कर्म पारलौकिकेन फलेन युक्तं कल्पते। तथा हि — यजन्ति याजका यजते यजमान इति न्यायेन यजतामृत्विजां यज्ञकर्म स्वयं कृतवतामपीदमश्वमेधादिकं यज्ञकर्म नास्माकं किञ्चिदपि तु दीक्षितस्य पुण्यवतो वयं किलेह यज्ञकर्माणि नियमितमूल्यमात्रार्थिनोऽत्र न केचनैव यजमानः पुनरमुना कर्मणा स्वर्गादिफलभागपीति तेषां कर्मफलाभिमानाभावान्न स्वयं कृतमपि कर्म तदीयेन स्वर्गादिना फलेन युज्यते यजमानस्तु तत्र यज्ञकर्म स्वयमकुर्वाण ऋत्विङ्निर्वर्त्यकर्ममुखप्रेक्ष्यपि ममेदमश्वमेधादिकं यज्ञकर्म मदीयेन धनेनाम्यृत्विजः कर्मणि प्रवृत्ता इति ममैव स्वर्गादिफलं देहपातादवश्यं भावि — इत्यकुर्वाणस्यापि यथा समीहितकर्मफलाभिमानदार्ढ्यात्तत्तस्य कर्म फलेन युज्यते। अत एव कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफल इति दीक्षितात्कर्तुर्यजते यजमान इत्यात्मनेपदं कर्त्रनभिप्राये तु परस्मैपदं यजन्ति याजका इति। इयान्महिमा दुर्लङ्घ्यो विकल्पस्वातन्त्र्यस्य — यत्स्वयं कृतमपि कर्म फलाभिमानाभावात्तत्फलेन न युज्यतेऽन्यैः कृतमपि कर्म ममेदमित्यभिमानदार्ढ्यात्फलयुक्तं स्यात्तस्मादृत्विग्व्यापारवत्क्रियमाणं योगिना कर्म फलाभिमानाभावान्न तत्सफलं भवेत् — इति॥६७॥

Evaṁ svātmapratyavamarśopapattyā jñāninā vigalitakarmaphalābhilāṣeṇa kṛtamapi karma na phalāya — Ityāvedayansvānubhavasiddhaṁ lokadṛṣṭāntamāha


Iti yuktibhirapi siddhaṁ yatkarma jñānino na saphalaṁ tat|
Na mamedamapi tu tasyeti dārḍhyato nahi phalaṁ loke||67||


Ahameva cidghanaḥ svatantraḥ sarvapramātrantaratamatvena sarvakarmakārī nāhaṁ vā kartā pārameśvarī svātantryaśaktiritthaṁ karoti — Iti mama śuddhacaitanyarūpasyaitāvatā kimāyātam — Iti yuktibhiḥ prākpratipāditasvarūpābhirupapattibhirvyākhyātasvātmasvarūpavidaḥ pramāturubhayathā dehādyahambhāvābhāvāddheyopādeyaśūnyatvena yatsiddhaṁ karma niṣpannamapi kṛtaṁ na saphalaṁ na tatphalena yujyate tasyātmajñāninaḥ pratipāditavadubhayathā kṛtrimatvābhāvātkṛtamapi karma kutra phalena yogaṁ kuryāddehādipramātṛtābhimānasvabhāvāśrayābhāvānna kutracit — Iti yāvat| Kṛtasya karmaṇo yā pramātuḥ phalābhimānarūḍhireṣa evāśrayo jñāninastvabhimānābhāvātsvasminrūpa eva prakṣīṇaṁ karma na phalena sambadhyate — Iti| Nanvabhimānādeva karma phalena yujyate — Iti kutra yathā — Ityāha na mamedamapi ityādi| Dṛṣṭaṁ caitannāpūrvaṁ yathā na mamedaṁ yajñādikaṁ karma api tu tasya kasyāpyarthavato yajamānasya iti anayā buddhyā kṛtamapi yajñādikaṁ karma loke mūlyārthitayā phalābhimānābhāvānna yatastatkarma pāralaukikena phalena yuktaṁ kalpate| Tathā hi — Yajanti yājakā yajate yajamāna iti nyāyena yajatāmṛtvijāṁ yajñakarma svayaṁ kṛtavatāmapīdamaśvamedhādikaṁ yajñakarma nāsmākaṁ kiñcidapi tu dīkṣitasya puṇyavato vayaṁ kileha yajñakarmāṇi niyamitamūlyamātrārthino'tra na kecanaiva yajamānaḥ punaramunā karmaṇā svargādiphalabhāgapīti teṣāṁ karmaphalābhimānābhāvānna svayaṁ kṛtamapi karma tadīyena svargādinā phalena yujyate yajamānastu tatra yajñakarma svayamakurvāṇa ṛtviṅnirvartyakarmamukhaprekṣyapi mamedamaśvamedhādikaṁ yajñakarma madīyena dhanenāmyṛtvijaḥ karmaṇi pravṛttā iti mamaiva svargādiphalaṁ dehapātādavaśyaṁ bhāvi — Ityakurvāṇasyāpi yathā samīhitakarmaphalābhimānadārḍhyāttattasya karma phalena yujyate| Ata eva kartrabhiprāye kriyāphala iti dīkṣitātkarturyajate yajamāna ityātmanepadaṁ kartranabhiprāye tu parasmaipadaṁ yajanti yājakā iti| Iyānmahimā durlaṅghyo vikalpasvātantryasya — Yatsvayaṁ kṛtamapi karma phalābhimānābhāvāttatphalena na yujyate'nyaiḥ kṛtamapi karma mamedamityabhimānadārḍhyātphalayuktaṁ syāttasmādṛtvigvyāpāravatkriyamāṇaṁ yoginā karma phalābhimānābhāvānna tatsaphalaṁ bhavet — Iti||67||

Thus (evam), (Abhinavagupta,) making known that (āvedayan) "the action (karma) does not (na) bear fruit (phalāya) which is done (kṛtam api) by a Knower (of the Truth) (jñāninā) in whom a recognition of his own Self has taken place (sva-ātma-pratyavamarśa-upapattyā) (and) in whom the desires (abhilāṣeṇa) for the results (phala) of (his) actions (karma) have completely disappeared (vigalita)", cited (āha) an example (dṛṣṭāntam) (taken) from the ordinary life (loka), which is proved (siddham) by one's own (sva) experience (anubhava):


Through the firm conviction that (dārḍhyatas) "This (idam) is not (na) mine (mama) but (api tu) His --of the Great Lord-- (tasya iti)", there is no (nahi) (action-related) fruit (phalam) in (this) world (loke). By reasonings (yuktibhiḥ api) of that type (iti), it is proved (siddham) that (yat) the action (karma... tad) does not bear fruit (na sa-phalam) as far as a Knower of the Self is concerned (jñāninaḥ)||67||


"I Myself (aham eva), a free (svatantraḥ) compact mass (ghanaḥ) of Consciousness (cit), (am) the Doer (kārī) of all (sarva) actions (karma) by residing as the innermost (Self) (antaratamatvena) in all (sarva) the subjects or individuals (pramātṛ)", or (vā) "I (aham) (am) not (na) the doer (kartā), it is the Power of Freedom (svātantrya-śaktiḥ) belonging to the Great Lord (pārameśvarī) that does (karoti) so (ittham... iti)". "How (kim) (might) I (mama), Pure (śuddha) Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanya-rūpasya), (be) affected (āyātam) by such a thing (etāvatā... iti)?". By reasonings (yuktibhiḥ) of that type (iti), viz. by arguments (upapattibhiḥ) whose essence (sva-rūpābhiḥ) was previously taught (prāk-pratipādita), (it is) in both cases (ubhayathā) proved (siddham) that (yad) the action (karma) arisen (niṣpannam api) —i.e. done (kṛtam)— from an individual (pramātuḥ) who knows (vidaḥ) that his essential nature (sva-rūpa) is his own Self (sva-ātma) in the way in which has been explained (vyākhyāta) does not bear fruit (na sa-phalam), (to wit,) it is not (na) possessed of (yujyate) its fruit (tad-phalena). (Why?) Due to the absence (abhāvāt) of the state of (bhāva) "I (aham) (am) the body (deha), etc. (ādi)" (in the first case --when the individual feels that he is the Supreme Lord Himself doing it all--, and) since there is nothing (śūnyatvena) to be accepted (upādeya) (or) rejected (heya) (in the second case --when the individual feels that it is the Supreme Lord who really does and not him--). As far as the Knower of the Self is concerned (tasya ātma-jñāninaḥ), in which case (kutra) (could) the action (karma) being performed (kṛtam api) produce (kuryāt) a connection (yogam) with (a certain) fruit (phalena) in the absence of (abhāvāt) a state of fictitious I-ness --ego-- (kṛtrimatva) in both situations (ubhayathā) such as has been explained (pratipādita-vat)? In the absence of (abhāvāt) a place of refuge --a receptacle-- (āśraya) whose nature (sva-bhāva) (is based on) the erroneous conception (abhimāna) that the body (deha), etc. (ādi) are (real) subjectivity --the real Subject-- (pramātṛtā), (one might reply:) In no case (na kutracid)! This is the sense (iti yāvat).

The birth and development (yā... rūḍhiḥ) in an individual (pramātuḥ) of the false conception about (abhimāna) the fruit (phala) of an action (karmaṇaḥ) which has been done (kṛtasya) (is) itself --the birth and development-- (eṣaḥ eva) the (abovementioned) place of refuge or receptacle (āśrayaḥ). However (tu), with reference to a Knower (of the Self) (jñāninaḥ), because of the absence (abhāvāt) of (such a) false conception (abhimāna), the form (of this place of refuge or receptacle) (rūpaḥ eva) (appears) in him (svasmin) (as) destroyed (prakṣīṇam) karma --residual impression(s) derived from actions-- (karma) (and consequently) cannot be connected (na... sambadhyate) with a fruit (phalena... iti).

An objection (nanu): "From (that) very false conception (abhimānāt eva), karma or action (karma) is possessed of (yujyate) a fruit (phalena... iti)", (but) "In which case (kutra), for instance (yathā... iti), (could one see that in action)?". (Abhinavagupta) said (āha): "Na mamedamapi (na mama idam api)", etc. (iti-ādi). And (ca) this (etad) (is) the example (dṛṣṭam), which is not (na) new (apūrva) (in the experience of a brāhmaṇa or priest who is expert in Vedic rituals): "This (idam) is not (na) mine (mama)" —namely (yathā), an action (karma) such as a sacrifice (yajña), etc. (ādikam)— "but (api tu) his (tasya)" —of someone (kasyāpi) who is a wealthy (arthavataḥ) yajamāna or sacrificer who paid the cost of the sacrifice (yajamānasya iti)—, i.e. the action (karma) such as a sacrifice (yajña), etc. (ādikam) performed (kṛtam api) by this intellect --by the intellect of the priest performing the sacrifice-- (anayā buddhyā) which is (only) wishing (arthitayā) a sum of money (for his work) (mūlya) does not (bear fruit for him) (na) in (this) world (loke) due to the absence (abhāvāt) of the false conception (abhimāna) about the fruit (phala), because (yatas) that (tad) action (karma) produces (kalpate) a connection (yuktam) with something relating to the next world (pāralaukikena).

For instance (tathā hi), according to the axiom (nyāyena) "The yājaka-s --the priests who carry out the sacrifice-- (yājakāḥ) perform a sacrifice for another (yajanti), (while) the yajamāna --the real sacrificer paying the cost of the sacrifice-- (yajamānaḥ) performs a sacrifice for himself (though he does not partake directly in the sacrifice itself) (yajate... iti)", (there are two viewpoints in this context:) (1) In the case of the priests (ṛtvijām) who performed the sacrifice (yajatām), viz. the ones who performed (kṛtavatām api) themselves (svayam) the sacrificial rite (yajña-karma), (as they think this way:) "This (idam) act (karma) of sacrifice (yajña) such as aśvamedha --the horse-sacrifice-- (aśva-medha), etc. (ādikam) is not (na) something (kiñcid) of ours (asmākam) but rather (api tu) of the virtuous person (puṇyavataḥ) whom the sacrifice has been consecrated --the yajamāna-- (dīkṣitasya); we (vayam), (are) indeed (kila) here (iha) only (mātra) desirous (arthinaḥ) of a sum of money (mūlya) (and) restricted (niyamita) to the ritualistic acts of sacrifice (yajña-karmāṇi), that is our only role --lit. we are nothing else-- (na kecana eva) in this (atra); but (punar) the yajamāna or sacrificer --the one who pays for the sacrifice-- (yajamānaḥ), through that action (amunā karmaṇā), (is) assuredly (api) a receptacle (bhāk) for the fruit (phala) (known as) heaven (svarga), etc. (ādi... iti)", though (api) (such an) action (karma) was done (kṛtam) by themselves (svayam) is not (na) possessed of (yujyate) its (tadīyena) fruit (phalena) (in the form of) heaven and so forth (svarga-ādinā) due to the absence (abhāvāt) in them --in those priests-- (teṣām) of the false conception (abhimāna) about the fruit (phala) of the rite (karma); (2) Nonetheless (tu), the yajamāna or sacrificer (yajamānaḥ) there --in the ritual-- (tatra), though (api) he does not perform (akurvāṇaḥ) the sacrificial rite (yajña-karma) himself (svayam), he watches (it all) (prekṣī) with his face turned to (mukha) the ritual (karma) being carried out (nirvartya) by the priests (ṛtvij) (and thinks this:) "This (idam) sacrificial rite (yajñakarma)(such as) the horse-sacrifice (aśva-medha), etc. (ādikam)(is) mine (mama) (and) those (amī) priests (ṛtvijaḥ) are engaged in (pravṛttāḥ) the ritual (karmaṇi) because of my money (madīyena dhanena); thus (iti), after the fall (pātāt) of the body (deha), only (eva) mine (mama) will certainly be (avaśyam bhāvi) the fruit (phalam) (called) heaven (svarga), etc. (ādi... iti)". (Then,) even (api) for example (yathā) in the case of someone who does not do (a certain action) (akurvāṇasya), due to the strength or firmness (dārḍhyāt) of the erroneous conception (abhimāna) about the wished (samīhita) fruit (phala) of (such an) action (karma), that (tad) action (karma) is possessed of (yujyate) a fruit (phala) for him --for the person with that erroneous conception-- (tasya).

For this reason (atas eva), (according to the Pāṇini's rule:) "When the fruit (phale) of an activity --an action-- (kriyā) accrues to (abhiprāye) the agent --the doer-- (kartṛ... iti)", (then the set of endings known as) "Ātmanepada" (ātmane-padam) (is to be used, as in) "The yajamāna --the real sacrificer paying the cost of the sacrifice-- (yajamānaḥ) performs a sacrifice for himself (though he does not partake directly in the sacrifice itself) (yajate... iti)" since he is the agent (kartuḥ) being consecrated (in the ritual) (dīkṣitāt). But (tu) (when the fruit of an activity --an action--) does not accrue to (anabhiprāye) the agent --the doer-- (kartṛ), (then, the set of endings called) Parasmaipada (parasmai-padam) (is to be used, as in) "The yājaka-s --the priests who carry out the sacrifice-- (yājakāḥ) perform a sacrifice for another (yajanti... iti)".

Greatness (mahimā) of the one who is free from (svātantryasya) thoughts (vikalpa) (is) so (iyān) difficult to be overcome (durlaṅghyaḥ) that (yad) even (api) the action (karma) done (kṛtam) by himself (svayam) is not (na) possessed of (yujyate) its fruit (tad-phalena) because of the absence (abhāvāt) (in that person) of the false conception (abhimāna) about the fruits (of his own deeds) (phala). (Anyway,) the action (karma) performed (kṛtam api) by others (lacking that freedom with reference to their thoughts) (anyaiḥ), due to the strength or firmness (dārḍhyāt) of the (aforesaid) erroneous conception (abhimāna) (appearing in the form of the attitude) "This (idam) (is) mine (mama... iti)", is connected with (yuktam syāt) a fruit (phala). Therefore (tasmāt), as in the case (vat) of the functions (vyāpāra) of a priest (ṛtvij), the action (karma... tad) being done (kriyamāṇam) by a Yogī (yoginā), in the absence of (abhāvāt) the false conception (abhimāna) about (its) fruit (phala), is (bhavet) not (na) endowed with fruit (sa-phalam... iti) --i.e. it does not bear any fruit at all--||67||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 68

एवं सर्वकर्मसु हेयोपादेयकल्पनाकलङ्कपरित्यक्तबुद्धिर्ज्ञानी दीप्तः स्यात् — इत्याह


इत्थं सकलविकल्पान्प्रतिबुद्धो भावनासमीरणतः।
आत्मज्योतिषि दीप्ते जुह्वज्ज्योतिर्मयो भवति॥६८॥


इत्थं व्याख्यातेन प्रकारेण या भावना अहमेव चैतन्यमहेश्वरः सर्वात्मना सर्वदैवं स्फुरामीति यात्मनि विमर्शरूढिः सैव शनैः प्रसरन्ती समीरणो वायुरिव तेन ज्ञानी प्रतिबुद्धो भस्मच्छन्नो वायुना प्रतिबोधितो वह्निर्यथा सकलविकल्पान् पशुरस्मि कर्मबन्धबद्धो देहरूपी ममेदं पुत्रदाराद्यमुना कर्मणा स्वर्गो निरयो वा भविष्यतीत्यादि सर्वाः कल्पना अहमेवेदं सर्वमिति परामर्शशेषीभूता आत्मज्योतिषि चैतन्यकृशानौ दीप्ते पराहन्ताचमत्कारसारे जुह्वदविकल्पकसंविद्रूपानुप्रवेशेन समर्पयन्स ज्योतिर्मयो भवति दाह्यविकल्पेन्धनपरिक्षयाद्दाहकाकारश्चिदग्निरेव सम्पद्यते परप्रमात्रेकवपुरसाववशिष्यते — इति यावत्॥६८॥

Evaṁ sarvakarmasu heyopādeyakalpanākalaṅkaparityaktabuddhirjñānī dīptaḥ syāt — Ityāha


Itthaṁ sakalavikalpānpratibuddho bhāvanāsamīraṇataḥ|
Ātmajyotiṣi dīpte juhvajjyotirmayo bhavati||68||


Itthaṁ vyākhyātena prakāreṇa yā bhāvanā ahameva caitanyamaheśvaraḥ sarvātmanā sarvadaivaṁ sphurāmīti yātmani vimarśarūḍhiḥ saiva śanaiḥ prasarantī samīraṇo vāyuriva tena jñānī pratibuddho bhasmacchanno vāyunā pratibodhito vahniryathā sakalavikalpān paśurasmi karmabandhabaddho deharūpī mamedaṁ putradārādyamunā karmaṇā svargo nirayo vā bhaviṣyatītyādi sarvāḥ kalpanā ahamevedaṁ sarvamiti parāmarśaśeṣībhūtā ātmajyotiṣi caitanyakṛśānau dīpte parāhantācamatkārasāre juhvadavikalpakasaṁvidrūpānupraveśena samarpayansa jyotirmayo bhavati dāhyavikalpendhanaparikṣayāddāhakākāraścidagnireva sampadyate parapramātrekavapurasāvavaśiṣyate — Iti yāvat||68||

Thus (evam), (in the stanza 68 Abhinavagupta) said (āha) (that) "The Knower of the Self (jñānī) in whose buddhi or intellect (buddhiḥ) the stain (kalaṅka) —the false notion (kalpanā) about what is to be rejected or accepted (heya-upādeya) with respect to all the actions (sarva-karmasu)— has been completely abandoned (parityakta) is (syāt) Bright --Luminous-- (dīptaḥ... iti)":


In this way (ittham), the Awakened one (pratibuddhaḥ), (who is like a fire covered with ashes that is revived) through the wind (samīraṇataḥ) of contemplation (bhāvanā), by offering (juhvat) all (his) false notions (sakala-vikalpān) (as an oblation) in the brilliant (dīpte) Light (jyotiṣi) of the Self (ātma), becomes (bhavati) Luminous --identical with this Light, full of this Light-- (jyotis-mayaḥ)||68||


["Itthaṁ... bhāvanāsamīraṇataḥ" or "In this way... (who is like a fire covered with ashes that is revived) through the wind of contemplation" is explained by Yogarāja as follows:] In this way (ittham) —in the manner (prakāreṇa) which has been explained (vyākhyātena)—, the "bhāvanā" or contemplation (bhāvanā... sā eva), which (yā... yā) (is) a development (rūḍhiḥ) of awareness (vimarśa) as regards the Self (ātmani) (appearing as:) "I Myself (aham eva) (am) the Great Lord (mahā-īśvaraḥ) who is Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanya) (and) always (sarvadā) shines forth (sphurāmi) thus (evam) as the Self (ātmanā) of all (sarva... iti)", gradually (śanaiḥ) moves forward and spread (prasarantī) as (if it were) (iva) "samīraṇa" (samīraṇaḥ) (or) the wind (vāyuḥ). ["Sakalavikalpānpratibuddho... juhvat" or "the Awakened one... by offering all (his) false notions" is described by Yogarāja in the following manner:] Through that (process) (tena), the "Pratibuddha" --lit. the Awakened one-- (pratibuddhaḥ) (or) Knower of the Self (jñānī), who is like (yathā) a fire (vahniḥ) covered (channaḥ) with ashes (bhasma) that is revived (pratibodhitaḥ) by the wind (vāyunā), by offering (juhvat) —by presenting (samarpayan) through an entrance into (anupraveśena) the vikalpa-less --free from vikalpa-s or false notions-- (avikalpaka) nature (rūpa) of Pure Consciousness (saṁvid)— all (his) vikalpa-s (sakala-vikalpān) —all (sarvāḥ) (his) false notions (kalpanāḥ)(such as) "I am (asmi) a limited individual (paśuḥ) who has a body (deha-rūpī) (and) is bound (baddhaḥ) by the fetters (bandha) of karma --actions-- (karma)", "These (idam) (are) my (mama) children, wife, etc. (putra-dāra-ādi)", "By that action (amunā karmaṇā) there will be (bhaviṣyati) heaven (svargaḥ) or (vā) hell (nirayaḥ)", etc. (iti-ādi), which remain (now) (śeṣī-bhūtāḥ) in the form of the remembrance that (parāmarśa) "I Myself (aham eva) (am) all (sarvam) this (idam... iti)"--all the vikalpa-s or false notions were transformed into "I Myself am all this, the entire universe", this is the sense--. (Where is he offering all those false notions as an oblation? Abhinavagupta said: "Ātmajyotiṣi dīpte" or "in the brilliant Light of the Self", which is poetically expressed by Yogarāja as:) In the brilliant (dīpte) —in that whose essence (sāre) is the Delight (camatkāra) of the Supreme (parā) I-consciousness (ahantā)— Light (jyotiṣi) of the Self (ātma) —in the Fire (kṛśānau) of Consciousness in Absolute Freedom (caitanya)—. (What is the final result of all that process? Abhinavagupta said: "jyotirmayo bhavati" or "becomes Luminous". Yogarāja expands the concept:) He (saḥ) becomes (bhavati) Luminous --identical with this Light, full of this Light-- (jyotis-mayaḥ) after the exhaustion (parikṣayāt) of the fuel (indana) (called) the vikalpa-s or false notions (vikalpa) being burnt (dāhya), (when) arises (sampadyate) the Fire (agniḥ eva) of Consciousness (cit) whose form (ākāraḥ) is being the agent that produced such a combustion (dāhaka), (and) It --the Fire of Consciousness-- (asau) remains (avaśiṣyate) endowed only with the beautiful form (eka-vapus) of the Supreme Knower or Experient (para-pramātṛ). This is the meaning (iti yāvat)||68||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 69

एवं व्याख्यातेन प्रकारेण यः प्रकृष्टज्ञानयोगाभ्यासरतः स शेषवर्तनया कथं कालमतिवाहयति — इत्याह


अश्नन्यद्वा तद्वा संवीतो येन केनचिच्छान्तः।
यत्र क्वचन निवासी विमुच्यते सर्वभूतात्मा॥६९॥


यत्किञ्चित्पुरः पतितमदनयोग्यं पदार्थमश्नंश्चमत्कुर्वन्न पुनर्नियमेनेदं पवित्रमिदमपवित्रमिदं कदन्नमिदं मिष्टान्नमिति हेयोपादेयकल्पनाविरहादयत्नेनापतितं यदपि तदपि समाहरन्। तथा संवितो येन इत्यादि। कन्थया चर्मणा वल्कलेन वा तूलपटादिना दिव्यात्मवस्त्रैर्वा समाच्छादितः — इत्युभयथोत्कर्षापकर्षाभावाच्छरीराच्छादनार्थक्रियार्थी भूत्वा नापि किञ्चिद्द्वेष्टि नापि स्तौति — इति। कथमेतद्यतः स शान्तः सुखदुःखादिविकल्पनातिक्रान्तः — इति। तथा यत्र क्वचन निवासीति। यत्र क्वचन यादृशे तादृशे स्थाने स्वपरिश्रयमात्रार्थी न पुनस्तस्य क्षेत्रायतनतीर्थादि पवित्रत्वात्स्वीकार्यं भवति नापि श्मशानश्वपचसदनाद्यपवित्रत्वात्परिहार्यं स्यादयत्नेन यद्यत्स्थानमापतितं तत्तदधिवसति पवित्रापवित्रकल्पनाकलङ्कविरहात्। विमुच्यत इत्येवमपि शेषवर्तनया परानुग्रहार्थप्रवृत्तः कालमतिवाहयन् विमुच्यते परमशिवीभवति। उक्तं च

येन केनचिदाच्छन्नो येन केनचिदाशितः।
यत्र क्वचन शायी यस्तं देवा ब्राह्मणं विदुः॥

इति। मोक्षधर्मेष्वपि

अनियतफलभक्ष्यभोज्यपेयं विधिपरिणामविभक्तदेशकालम्।
हृदयसुखमसेवितं कदर्यैर्व्रतमिदमाजगरं शुचिश्चरामि॥

इति। कथमेवमपि कुर्वञ्ज्ञानी स्वयं मुच्येत — इत्याह सर्वभूतात्मेति। यतः स ज्ञानी सर्वभूतात्मा सर्वेषां भूतानामात्मा सर्वाणि च भूतानि तस्यात्मा — इति कृत्वा न किञ्चिद्बन्धकतया भवति सर्वं विमुक्तयेऽस्य सम्पद्यते — इति॥६९॥

Evaṁ vyākhyātena prakāreṇa yaḥ prakṛṣṭajñānayogābhyāsarataḥ sa śeṣavartanayā kathaṁ kālamativāhayati — Ityāha


Aśnanyadvā tadvā saṁvīto yena kenacicchāntaḥ|
Yatra kvacana nivāsī vimucyate sarvabhūtātmā||69||


Yatkiñcitpuraḥ patitamadanayogyaṁ padārthamaśnaṁścamatkurvanna punarniyamenedaṁ pavitramidamapavitramidaṁ kadannamidaṁ miṣṭānnamiti heyopādeyakalpanāvirahādayatnenāpatitaṁ yadapi tadapi samāharan| Tathā saṁvito yena ityādi| Kanthayā carmaṇā valkalena vā tūlapaṭādinā divyātmavastrairvā samācchāditaḥ — Ityubhayathotkarṣāpakarṣābhāvāccharīrācchādanārthakriyārthī bhūtvā nāpi kiñciddveṣṭi nāpi stauti — Iti| Kathametadyataḥ sa śāntaḥ sukhaduḥkhādivikalpanātikrāntaḥ — Iti| Tathā yatra kvacana nivāsīti| Yatra kvacana yādṛśe tādṛśe sthāne svapariśrayamātrārthī na punastasya kṣetrāyatanatīrthādi pavitratvātsvīkāryaṁ bhavati nāpi śmaśānaśvapacasadanādyapavitratvātparihāryaṁ syādayatnena yadyatsthānamāpatitaṁ tattadadhivasati pavitrāpavitrakalpanākalaṅkavirahāt| Vimucyata ityevamapi śeṣavartanayā parānugrahārthapravṛttaḥ kālamativāhayan vimucyate paramaśivībhavati| Uktaṁ ca

Yena kenacidācchanno yena kenacidāśitaḥ|
Yatra kvacana śāyī yastaṁ devā brāhmaṇaṁ viduḥ||

Iti| Mokṣadharmeṣvapi

Aniyataphalabhakṣyabhojyapeyaṁ vidhipariṇāmavibhaktadeśakālam|
Hṛdayasukhamasevitaṁ kadaryairvratamidamājagaraṁ śuciścarāmi||

Iti| Kathamevamapi kurvañjñānī svayaṁ mucyeta — Ityāha sarvabhūtātmeti| Yataḥ sa jñānī sarvabhūtātmā sarveṣāṁ bhūtānāmātmā sarvāṇi ca bhūtāni tasyātmā — Iti kṛtvā na kiñcidbandhakatayā bhavati sarvaṁ vimuktaye'sya sampadyate — Iti||69||

Thus (evam), in the way (prakāreṇa) which has been explained (vyākhyātena), how (katham) does he (saḥ) who (yaḥ) is devoted to (rataḥ) the practice (abhyāsa) of Yoga (yoga) based on superior (prakṛṣṭa) Knowledge (jñāna) spend (ativāhayati) (his) time (kālam) occupied with (vartanayā) the rest of things (śeṣa)? (Abhinavagupta) said (āha) so (iti) (in the stanza 69 in order to answer that question:)


The Peaceful One (śāntaḥ) who eats (aśnan) anything whatever (yadvā tadvā), who covers (his body) (saṁvītaḥ) with anything whatever (yena kenacid) (and) who lives (nivāsī) in any place whatever (yatra kvacana), being the Self (ātmā) of all (sarva) beings (bhūta), becomes totally liberated (vimucyate) (while he spends his time engaged in the goal of giving Grace to other people)||69||


He eats (aśnan), while expressing astonishment (camat-kurvan), whatever (yad kiñcid) edible (adana-yogyam) thing (padārtham) dropped (patitam) in front (of him) (puras) with no restriction (na punar niyamena) due to the absence of (virahāt) false notions (kalpanā) about what is to be taken (upādeya) (or) rejected (heya) (such as) "This (idam) (is) purifying (pavitram), this (idam) (is) not purifying (apavitram), this (idam) (is) bad food (kadannam), this (idam) (is) sweet food (miṣṭānnam... iti)". (All in all,) he takes (samāharan) anything whatever (yadapi tadapi) that all of a sudden appears (before him) (āpatitam) effortlessly (ayatnena) --Abhinavagupta and Yogarāja are not talking about food that is harmful for one's own health, as it is obvious (e.g. food containing a lot of sugar and the physical body of the "Peaceful One" suffers from diabetes), but about food that is considered good or bad according to certain beliefs, e.g. vegetables are purifying while meat is not purifying; the Peaceful One is not a fool then--.

(Whether) he is covered (samācchāditaḥ) by rags (kanthayā), the skin of an animal (carmaṇā) or (vā) the bark of a tree (valkalena), (or else, if he is covered) by a cotton cloth (tūla-paṭa) and the like (ādinā), or (vā) (even) by divine garments (divya-ātma-vastraiḥ... iti), in both cases --poorly clothed or beautifully clothed-- (ubhayathā), due to the absence of (abhāvāt) (a feeling of) superiority (utkarṣa) (or) inferiority (apakarṣa) (in him), having become (bhūtvā) someone whose goal (arthī) is the purposeful action (artha-kriyā) as far as covering the body is concerned (śarīra-ācchādana), he neither hates (na-api... dveṣṭi) something --a kind of garment-- (kiñcid) nor does (na-api) praises (it) (stauti... iti) --viz. he just wears the clothes with the purpose of covering effectively the body and not because he likes some garment specially--.

How (katham) (is) this (etad) (possible)? Because (yatas) he (saḥ) (is) peaceful (śāntaḥ), i.e. he transcends (atikrāntaḥ) the false notions (vikalpanā) based on pleasure (sukha), pain (duḥkha), etc. (ādi... iti).

Likewise (tathā), (Abhinavagupta said about him:) "yatra kvacana nivāsī" (yatra kvacana nivāsī iti).

(In other words,) his goal (arthī) is only (mātra) (finding) a refuge or shelter (pariśraya) for himself (sva) wherever (yatra kvacana), i.e. in any place whatever (yādṛśe tādṛśe sthāne). However (punar), he does not take possession of (na... tasya... svī-kāryam bhavati) a sacred field (kṣetra), a sanctuary (āyatana), a place of pilgrimage (tīrtha), etc. (ādi) since they are purifying (pavitratvāt), nor does he shun (tasya... na api... parihāryam syāt) a crematorium (śmaśāna), the house (sadana) of an outcast or pariah (śvapaca), etc. (ādi) since they are not purifying (apavitratvāt). Whatever (yad yad) the place (sthānam) suddenly appearing (before him) (āpatita), he resides (adhivasati) there (tad tad). (He behaves like that) because he is without (virahāt) the stain (kalaṅka) (known as) the false notion (kalpanā) about what is purifying (pavitra) (and) what is not purifying (apavitra).

(The term) "vimucyate" (vimucyate iti) (in the stanza means that,) even so (evam api) while he is occupied with (vartanayā) the rest of things (śeṣa) (apart from his practice of Yoga based on superior Knowledge), viz. while he spends (ativāhayan) (his) time (kālam) engaged in (pravṛttaḥ) the goal (artha) of (giving) Grace (anugraha) to other people (para), he becomes totally liberated --he escapes from bondage-- (vimucyate) (and) turns into the Supreme Śiva (paramaśivī-bhavati).

(This truth was) also expressed (uktam ca) (by this stanza:)

"The gods (devāḥ) know (viduḥ) him (tam) as a priest (brāhmaṇam) who (yaḥ) is covered --clothed with-- (ācchannaḥ) by anything whatever (yena kenacid), (who is) fed (āśitaḥ) with anything whatever (yena kenacid) (and who) lies down (śāyī) in any place whatever (yatra kvacana... iti)".

In the verses of (the section whose name is) "Mokṣadharma" (mokṣa-dharmeṣu) (within the Mahābhārata's Śāntiparva, i.e. in Mahābhārata XII, 172, 27----, (the same teaching is) also (given by the great sage Bhīṣma) (api):

"Undefiled (śuciḥ), I observe (carāmi) this (idam) boa constrictor (ājagaram) vow (vratam) in which fruits (phala), food requiring mastication (bhakṣya), food not requiring mastication (bhojya) (and) drinks (peyam) are unrestricted (aniyata), in which space (deśa) (and) time (kālam) (as regards taking food) are divided (vibhakta) by the changes (pariṇāma) coming from the destiny (vidhi), in which there is happiness (sukham) in (one's own) heart (hṛdaya) (and) which is abstained from (asevitam) by the ones who are mean (kadaryaiḥ... iti)".

How (katham) does the Knower of the Self (jñānī) who performs (kurvan) so (evam api) become himself liberated (svayam vimucyeta)? (Abhinavagupta) said (āha) so (iti) (to answer that question): "sarvabhūtātmā" (sarvabhūtātmā iti).

Because (yatas) the Knower of the Self (saḥ jñānī) (is) "sarvabhūtātmā" (sarva-bhūta-ātmā), i.e. having considered that (iti kṛtvā) "(he is) the Self (ātmā) of all beings (sarveṣām bhūtānām) and (ca) all (sarvāṇi) the beings (bhūtāni) (are) his (tasya) Self (ātmā)", nothing (na kiñcit) becomes (bhavati) a source of bondage (bandhakatayā) (in his case), all (sarvam) is conducive to (sampadyate) his (asya) complete Liberation (vimuktaye... iti)||69||


Without notes of explanation yet

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 Stanza 70

नाप्येवंरूपस्य निरभिमानस्य यत्किञ्चित्कुर्वतोऽपि पुण्यपापसम्भवः — इत्याह


हयमेधशतसहस्राण्यपि कुरुते ब्रह्मघातलक्षाणि।
परमार्थविन्न पुण्यैर्न च पापैः स्पृश्यते विमलः॥७०॥


य एवं परमार्थवित्स्वात्ममहेश्वरस्वभावसतत्त्वज्ञः सोऽश्वमेधराजसूयाप्तोर्यामादियज्ञान्निःसङ्ख्यान्फलकामनाभिमानविरहात्कर्तव्यतामात्रमिदमित्येवं कृत्वा क्रीडार्थं यदि कदाचिद्विहितानि कर्माणि विदधात्यथवा ब्रह्महननसुरापानस्तैन्यादीनि प्रमादोपनतानि महापातकान्यविहितान्यप्यशरीरतया च — इत्युभयथाहं ममेत्यभिमानाभावात्परमेश्वरेच्छैवेत्थं विजृम्भते मम किमायातमिति बुद्ध्या न पुण्यैः शुभफलैर्नापि पापैरशुभैः स ज्ञानी स्पृश्यते मलिनीक्रियत इति। कथमेतत् — इत्याह विमल इति। यतस्तस्य विगताः प्रक्षीणा आणवमायीयकार्ममलाः संसरणहेतवः — इति। एवं मलिनस्य हि प्रमातुर्विच्छिन्नदेहादिप्रमातृतयात्मात्मीयाभिमानभावो येन ममेदं कर्म शुभमिदमशुभमित्यभिमानदौरात्म्यात्पुण्यपापसञ्चययोगः स्याद्यस्य कर्मफलसञ्चयो ममत्वहेतुर्मलप्रचयो विगतः स्यात्तस्याभिमानाभावात्कथं पुण्यपापस्पर्शः। यथा श्रीभगवद्गीतासु

यस्य नाहङ्कृतो भावो बुद्धिर्यस्य न लिप्यते।
हत्वापि स इमाँल्लोकान्न हन्ति न निबध्यते॥

इति॥७०॥

Nāpyevaṁrūpasya nirabhimānasya yatkiñcitkurvato'pi puṇyapāpasambhavaḥ — Ityāha


Hayamedhaśatasahasrāṇyapi kurute brahmaghātalakṣāṇi|
Paramārthavinna puṇyairna ca pāpaiḥ spṛśyate vimalaḥ||70||


Ya evaṁ paramārthavitsvātmamaheśvarasvabhāvasatattvajñaḥ so'śvamedharājasūyāptoryāmādiyajñānniḥsaṅkhyānphalakāmanābhimānavirahātkartavyatāmātramidamityevaṁ kṛtvā krīḍārthaṁ yadi kadācidvihitāni karmāṇi vidadhātyathavā brahmahananasurāpānastainyādīni pramādopanatāni mahāpātakānyavihitānyapyaśarīratayā ca — Ityubhayathāhaṁ mametyabhimānābhāvātparameśvarecchaivetthaṁ vijṛmbhate mama kimāyātamiti buddhyā na puṇyaiḥ śubhaphalairnāpi pāpairaśubhaiḥ sa jñānī spṛśyate malinīkriyata iti| Kathametat — Ityāha vimala iti| Yatastasya vigatāḥ prakṣīṇā āṇavamāyīyakārmamalāḥ saṁsaraṇahetavaḥ — Iti| Evaṁ malinasya hi pramāturvicchinnadehādipramātṛtayātmātmīyābhimānabhāvo yena mamedaṁ karma śubhamidamaśubhamityabhimānadaurātmyātpuṇyapāpasañcayayogaḥ syādyasya karmaphalasañcayo mamatvaheturmalapracayo vigataḥ syāttasyābhimānābhāvātkathaṁ puṇyapāpasparśaḥ| Yathā śrībhagavadgītāsu

Yasya nāhaṅkṛto bhāvo buddhiryasya na lipyate|
Hatvāpi sa imām̐llokānna hanti na nibadhyate||

Iti||70||

(Abhinavagupta) said that (iti āha): "Even (api) whatever thing (yat kiñcid) such (a Knower of the Self) (evaṁrūpasya) who is devoid of erroneous conceptions (nirabhimānasya) might do (kurvataḥ), there are no (na api... sambhavaḥ) good or bad fruits (coming from his actions) (puṇya-pāpa)":


Though (api) the Knower (vit) of the Highest (parama) Reality (artha) performs (kurute) one hundred (śata) thousand (sahasrāṇi) horse-sacrifices (haya-medha) (or) one hundred thousand (lakṣāṇi) assassinations (ghāta) of priests (brahma), (he,) the Immaculate one (vimalaḥ), is not (na... na ca) touched (spṛśyate) by the good or bad fruits (of his actions) (puṇyaiḥ... pāpaiḥ)||70||


Thus (evam), whether (yadi), on account of (artham) the (Divine) Play (krīḍā) (and) thinking to himself (iti evaṁ kṛtvā) "This (idam) is just needed to be done (kartavyatā-mātram... iti)", the one who (yaḥ... saḥ) (is) a Knower (vit) of the Highest (parama) Reality (artha) —the one who really (satattva) knows (jñaḥ) that the essential nature (sva-bhāva) of the Great Lord (mahā-īśvara) (is) his own Self (sva-ātma)— ever (kadācid) performs (vidadhāti) prescribed (vihitāni) actions (karmāṇi) without (virahāt) erroneous conceptions (abhimāna) (and) desires (kāmanā) with regard to (their) fruits (phala), (e.g.) innumerable (niḥsaṅkhyān) sacrifices (yajñān) (such as) "aśvamedha" --horse-sacrifice-- (aśva-medha), "rājasūya" --sacrifice at the coronation of a king-- (rāja-sūya), "aptoryāma" --one of the seven types of Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifices, where Soma is offered-- (aptoryāma), etc. (ādi); or (athavā) (if he performs,) with a state free from (attachment to his) physical body (aśarīratayā ca), even (api) (actions) that are not prescribed (by the scriptures) (avihitāni), which cause a great fall (mahā-pātakāni) (and) are produced (upanatāni) out of negligence (pramāda) (such as) the acts of killing (hanana) priests (brahma), drinking spirituous liquors (surā-āpāna), stealing (stainya), etc. (ādīni... iti); in both cases (ubhayathā) the Knower of the Self (saḥ jñānī) is neither (na) touched (spṛśyate) —tarnished (malinī-kriyate)— by the "puṇya-s" (puṇyaiḥ) —by the good fruits (of his actions) (śubha-phalaiḥ)— nor is (he also touched) (na api) by the "pāpa-s" (pāpaiḥ) —by the bad (fruits of his actions) (aśubhaiḥ)— since he thinks like this (iti buddhyā): "The Supreme Lord's (parama-īśvara) Will (icchā eva) manifests Itself (vijṛmbhate) this way (ittham); how (kim) (might) I (mama) (be) affected (by all that then) (āyātam... iti)?", due to the absence (in him) (abhāvāt) of false conceptions (abhimāna) (about) "I (aham) (and) mine (mama iti)".

"How (katham) (is) this (etad... iti) (possible)?". (Abhinavagupta) said (āha) "vimalaḥ (vimalaḥ iti)".

Because (yatas), in his case (tasya), the causes (hetavaḥ) of transmigrating --from one body to another, from one thought to another, etc.-- (saṁsaraṇa) (called) Āṇavamala, Māyīyamala (and) Kārmamala (āṇava-māyīya-kārma-malāḥ) --the three mala-s or impurities-- are completely gone (vigatāḥ), i.e. they have vanished (prakṣīṇāḥ... iti).

In this way (evam), since (hi) in the case of a knower or experient (pramātuḥ) affected by (those three) impurities (malinasya), being endowed with subjectivity (pramātṛtayā) (associated with) a limited (vicchinna) physical body (deha) and so forth (ādi), (there is) the presence (bhāvaḥ) of erroneous conceptions (abhimāna) about himself (ātma) (and) what is his (ātmīya), (and) as a result (yena) there is (also) (syāt) connection (yogaḥ) with multitude (sañcaya) of good and bad fruits (of his actions) (puṇya-pāpa) due to the depravity (daurātmyāt) of (this) false concept (abhimāna): "This (idam) action (karma) of mine (mama) (is) good (śubham), this (other action of mine) (idam) (is) bad (aśubham... iti)". (Nevertheless,) in the case of someone in whom (yasya) is (syāt) totally gone (vigataḥ) the group (pracayaḥ) of mala-s or impurities (mala) which is the cause (hetuḥ) of the sense of ownership --the state of "mine"-- (mamatva) causing multitude (sañcayaḥ) of fruits (phala) relating to actions (karma), because of the absence (abhāvāt) in him (tasya) of erroneous conceptions (abhimāna), how (katham) (could there be) contact (sparśaḥ) with the good and bad fruits (of his deeds) (puṇya-pāpa)?

As (has also been expressed) (yathā) in the verses of venerable Bhagavadgītā (śrī-bhagavadgītāsu) --XVIII,17--:

"He (saḥ) whose (yasya) state (bhāvaḥ) is not (na) egotistic --full of ego-- (ahaṅkṛtaḥ) (and) whose (yasya) intellect (buddhiḥ) is not stained (na lipyate), even if (api) he kills --lit. killing-- (hatvā) these (imān) people (lokān), he does not (na) kill (hanti) (anybody) nor (na) is bound (nibadhyate... iti) (by actions)".

||70||


Without notes of explanation yet

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