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 Learning Sanskrit - Declension (1)

Declension of nouns and adjectives ending in vowels - Part 1


 Introduction: A first approach to declension

Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka again. We will start studying Sanskrit declension now. It is a very important subject. Before placing a noun, adjective, pronoun or numeral in the sentence, you will have to decline it in order to insert the appropriate gender, number and case. Gender may be masculine, feminine or neuter. Number may be singular, plural or "dual". And there are 8 cases: Nominative (Nom.), Vocative (Voc.), Accusative (Acc.), Instrumental (Ins.), Dative (Dat.), Ablative (Ab.), Genitive (Gen.) and Locative (Loc.).

But what is declension? It is the inflection of nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals. Every noun, adjective, pronoun or numeral has a crude form or prātipadika. Prātipadika is their uninflected form. Got it? An example now:

"Śiva" is the crude form of the noun "Śiva". Very good. But, if you want to place it in a sentence, you must give gender, number and case to it. For instance: "Śiva is worshipped". You cannot simply write "Śiva pūjyate", because you must assign a gender, number and case to the words before placing them in the sentence. Since the gender is masculine, the number is singular and the case is Nominative, you have to transform the word "Śiva" into "Śivaḥ". When you add a Visarga (ḥ) to a noun ending in "a", the Nominative case is denoted. So:

"Śivaḥ pūjyate"

And now the sentence is properly structured. Of course, every vowel termination has its own set of endings. However, there is a kind of "pattern case endings", which I will use when I explain the "Mechanics of declension" to you.

As you can see, to decline is simply to alter the last part of a noun, adjective, pronoun or numeral in their crude form (prātipadika) so that a gender, number and case is given to them. In short, you must "inflect" them. Obviously, if a noun, adjective, pronoun or numeral has no gender, number and case, it cannot enter the sentence.

As a gift, you have also a document with many examples and another one with a list of terminations so that you may fully understand Sanskrit declension.

A final advise: Go deep into the Sandhi rules in order to fully understand the declensions and the rest. Also, have always a printed copy of all Rules of Sandhi at hand.

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 What does every case mean?

I will explain this subject to you completely. You must understand the meaning of every case, not only to be able to decline properly, but to use declension in a proper manner. If you do not understand how to utilize every case, you will never can build up a sentence in Sanskrit.

Although I am going to teach the "generic" meaning of the eight cases, you must learn to think in Sanskrit. If you keep thinking in English while studying Sanskrit, you will not grasp it at all. Some verbs use cases in an apparently "incoherent" way (from the English's viewpoint, of course). For example, in English you say: "I am saying something to someone", but in Sanskrit you may come to say "I am saying something on someone". In Sanskrit, the use of the words "of, for, to, on" and all the rest, is "generally" similar to that of English, but not all the time. So, start to think gradually in Sanskrit from now on if you want to learn this language adequately:


1) NOMINATIVE CASE: It indicates the Subject. The Subject is both he who is doing the action denoted by the verb and who is described by the rest of the sentence.
(Even though you have just started learning declension, I am going to decline in the examples of each case. Do not worry, it is only for the sake of information. I will use nouns ending in "a".)

शिवः प्रेम भवति - Śivaḥ prema bhavati

Śiva (śivaḥ) is (bhavati) love (prema) --the Subject "Śiva" is being described in this sentence. Note that I had to add Visarga to the prātipadika or crude form "Śiva" so that the word be properly declined in the Nominative case--.

शिवः करोति सर्वम् - Śivaḥ karoti sarvam

Śiva (śivaḥ) does (karoti) everything (sarvam) --the Subject "Śiva" is doing the action denoted by the verb.


2) VOCATIVE CASE: It indicates Direct Address. It may be optionally accompanied by such words as "he-- O". If not so, the interjections "O" or "Eh" are already included in the Vocative case itself.

हे शिव पाहि मे - He śiva pāhi me

O (he) Śiva (śiva) protect (pāhi) me (me)! --The "he" is optional. Note that the Vocative case "Śiva" coincides with the crude form or prātipadika "Śiva". Although this is true for nouns ending in "a", is not always true for all nouns, because sometimes the Vocative case coincides with the Nominative case and, at other cases, it differs from both the crude form and the Nominative--.

शिव पाहि मे - Śiva pāhi me

O Śiva (śiva) protect (pāhi) me (me) --Note that the "O" is included in the Vocative case itself.

पुष्पदन्त गातुमर्हसि - Puṣpadanta gātumarhasi

Eh Puṣpadanta (puṣpadanta) be pleased (arhasi) to sing (gātum) --Note that "Eh" is also indicated by the Vocative case--.


3) ACCUSATIVE CASE: It indicates the Direct Object. The Direct Object is that to which the action denoted by the verb is being directed.

शिवमाप्नुयात् - Śivamāpnuyāt

He/she/it would obtain (āpnuyāt) Śiva (śivam) --"Śivam" is the proper declension for "Śiva" in the Accusative case--.


4) INSTRUMENTAL CASE: It indicates the Instrument. When you use this case you are "usually" indicating "by, through, by means of, with, along with, together with, etc.".

शिवेन विश्वं कृतम् - Śivena viśvaṁ kṛtam

The universe (viśvam) has been made (kṛtam) by Śiva (śivena) --"Śiva" is the instrument or means by which the entire universe has been made. Note that "ena" in "Śivena" is respectively substituted for the final "a" in "Śiva". In short, you remove "a" and place "ena" instead. Of course, this rule is only valid for nouns and adjectives ending in "a"--.

पुष्पदन्तेन वनं गच्छामि - Puṣpadantena vanaṁ gacchāmi

I go (gacchāmi) to the woods (vanam) along with Puṣpadanta (puṣpadantena) --And now, the Intrumental case gives a sense of company--.


5) DATIVE CASE: It indicates the Indirect Object. In English the Indirect Object is the word coming after "for" or "to" or "for the sake of", etc.

स शिवाय पुष्पं ददाति - Sa śivāya puspaṁ dadāti

He (saḥ) offers (dadāti) a flower (puṣpam) to Śiva (śivāya) --"Śivāya" is the Indirect Object and "puṣpam" is the Direct Object. In sum, you may see two words being declined: one in Dative case and the other in Accusative case--.


6) ABLATIVE CASE: It indicates the Source. When you use this case you are "usually" indicating "from, on account of, since, because of, due to, owing to, etc.".

शिवादनुग्रह आगच्छति - Śivādanugraha āgacchati

The (divine) favour or grace (anugrahaḥ) comes (āgacchati) from Śiva (śivāt) --"Śivāt" is the Ablative case of "Śiva". You may also see that I have used some rules of Sandhi to combine the words. But just pay attention to the cases--.

शिवाज्जगद्वर्तते - Śivājjagadvartate

The world (jagat) exists (vartate) because of Śiva (śivāt) --Note that the final "t" in "Śivāt" has been combined with the initial "j" in "jagat" (by means of a rule of Sandhi) to form "jj".--


7) GENITIVE CASE: It indicates Sense of Belonging. When you use this case you are "usually" indicating "of, 's, s', etc.".

शिवस्य गिरिः - Śivasya giriḥ

The mountain (giriḥ) of Śiva (śivasya) --"Śivasya" is the Genitive case of "Śiva". Apart from this, sometimes the Genitive may be used in place of the Dative case (e.g. the sentence "Hitaṁ śivasya" cannot be translated into "Good of Śiva". It does not make any sense. Not at all. In this case, the Genitive must be taken for Dative. So, the proper translation is "Good for Śiva". It is very simple. Still, the Genitive has "usually" to do with a sense of ownership.)--.


8) LOCATIVE CASE: It indicates the Location. When you use this case you are "usually" indicating "in, on, at, etc.".

शिवे सर्वं वर्तते - Śive sarvaṁ vartate

Everything (sarvam) exists (vartate) in Śiva (śive) --"Śive" is the Locative case of "Śiva". However, sometimes the Locative case may be used in place of the Accusative (e.g. "Śive dattam" is not to be translated as "Given in Śiva" It does not make any sense. Not at all. In this case the Locative must be taken for Accusative. So, the proper translation is "Given to Śiva". Still, the Locative has "usually" to do with a sense of location.)--.

This is a mere introduction to the subject "Cases". We will go deeper into it when studying Sanskrit syntax (Syntax section).

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 Kinds of vowel terminations

Look at this simple table:

Masculine nouns and adjectives
ending in
Feminine nouns and adjectives
ending in
Neuter nouns and adjectives
ending in
(a) (ā)  -- (ā) (a)
(i) -- (i) (ī) (i)
(u) -- (u) (ū) (u)
(ṛ) -- (ṛ) --  (ṛ)

You may see that if the "a" is the final vowel, so the noun or adjective is masculine or neuter. In turn, if it ends in "ā", is masculine or feminine. And a noun or adjective ending in "i, u or ṛ" may be masculine, feminine or neuter. Finally, those that end in "ī or ū" are feminine. All this is true in respect of the "crude forms" or prātipadika-s of the nouns and adjectives. Of course, if you take the declined form there will be surely incoherence. For example: "ātmā" --"self"-- ends in "ā" but it is not a prātipadika or crude form but a noun declined in Nominative case. The proper prātipadika is "ātman" (a noun ending in "an").

Thus, you must use the prātipadika or crude form to classify a noun or adjective. In a Sanskrit dictionary you find fundamentally prātipadika-s (of course, other cases are also given in order to furnish the reader with more information).

Remember that a noun or adjective ending in a vowel may have just one gender or several genders too. It may be either only masculine, or both masculine and neuter, and so on.

And now, the same table but with examples this time:

Masculine nouns and adjectives
ending in
Feminine nouns and adjectives ending in Neuter nouns and adjectives ending in
शिव (Śiva - auspicious) गोपा (gopā - cow-herd) -- सेना (senā - army) आसन (āsana - posture)
अलि (ali - bee) -- शक्ति (śakti - power) देवी (devī - goddess) वारि (vāri - water)
गुरु (guru - heavy, preceptor) -- धेनु (dhenu - cow) वधू (vadhū - wife) मधु (madhu - honey)
भर्तृ (bhart - husband) -- स्वसृ (svas - sister) -- कर्तृ (kart - doer, maker)

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 Pattern case endings

Even though there is a particular set of endings for every kind of vowel termination, that is, "one set for nouns ending in a, one set for nouns ending in i, etc.", we might consider the set which is used to decline nouns ending in consonant to be a "pattern set". It is strange, isn't it? Well, that set must be used carefully because it is not always valid. For example, the nouns ending in "a" have practically a set of terminations apart. However, we can use the pattern set in a general way. I will explain how to use it to you in "Mechanics of declension". Pay attention now:

PATTERN CASE ENDINGS (MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative स्  or : अस्  or अः
s or au as or aḥ
Vocative It sometimes coincides with the prātipadika or crude form of the noun, sometimes with the Nominative case, at others it differs from both of them. अस्  or अः
au as or aḥ
Accusative अम् अस्  or अः
am au as or aḥ
Instrumental भ्याम् भिस् or भिः
ā bhyām bhis or bhiḥ
Dative भ्याम् भ्यः
e bhyām bhyas or bhyaḥ
Ablative अस् or अः भ्याम् भ्यस् or भ्यः
as or aḥ bhyām bhyas or bhyaḥ
Genitive अस् or अः ओस् or ओः आम्
as or aḥ os or oḥ ām
Locative ओस् or ओः सु
i os or oḥ su

PATTERN CASE ENDINGS (NEUTER NOUNS)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative म्
m ī i
Vocative It sometimes coincides with the prātipadika or crude form of the noun, sometimes with the Nominative case, at others it differs from both of them.
ī i
Accusative म्
m ī i
The rest like the masculine and feminine ones

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 Mechanics of declension

I will use the pattern case endings given above to explain the mechanics of declension to you. Remember that this set of endings is a "general" one and is not always to be applied. Nevertheless, the set of pattern case endings holds good only in the last five cases (Instrumental, Dative, Ablative, Genitive and Locative) in Dual and Plural when you use it with nouns ending in "i" and "u". Therefore, I will explain the mechanics of declension by using nouns ending in "i" and "u".

Let us take the following noun: "śakti" (fem.), which means "power".

First of all, you remove the final vowel ("i" in this case) from the noun and then you combine it with a pattern case ending. So, I will add the respective pattern case ending (only Instrumental, Dative, Ablative, Genitive and Locative in Dual and Plural) to the word "śakti" (a feminine noun). Remember that since "śakti" is a feminine noun, you must use the first above table. Let us get down to work:

INSTRUMENTAL
DUAL PLURAL
शक्तिभ्याम् शक्तिभिः
śaktibhyām
(by/through/along with/etc. the two powers)
śaktibhiḥ
(by/through/along with/etc. the powers)
śakti = śakt + i
I remove the final "i" and combine it with the respective pattern case ending this way:
i + bhyām = ibhyām
I add this to "śakt":
śakt + ibhyām = śaktibhyām
śakti = śakt + i
I remove the final "i" and combine it with the respective pattern case ending this way:
i + bhiḥ = ibhiḥ
I add this to "śakt":
śakt + ibhiḥ = śaktibhiḥ
Just a little comment: Even though everything has been very simple, you should be acquainted with some Sandhi Rules before studying Declension. Go to Combination (Parts 1, 2, 3, etc.) every time you need it.
DATIVE
DUAL PLURAL
शक्तिभ्याम् शक्तिभ्यः
śaktibhyām
(to/for/etc. the two powers)
śaktibhyaḥ
(to/for/etc. the powers)
śakti = śakt + i
I remove the final "i" and combine it with the respective pattern case ending this way:
i + bhyām = ibhyām
I add this to "śakt":
śakt + ibhyām = śaktibhyām
śakti = śakt + i
I remove the final "i" and combine it with the respective pattern case ending this way:
i + bhyaḥ = ibhyaḥ
I add this to "śakt":
śakt + ibhyaḥ = śaktibhyaḥ
ABLATIVE
DUAL PLURAL
शक्तिभ्याम् शक्तिभ्यः
śaktibhyām
(from/on account of/etc. the two powers)
śaktibhyaḥ
(from/on account of/etc. the powers)
śakti = śakt + i
I remove the final "i" and combine it with the respective pattern case ending this way:
i + bhyām = ibhyām
I add this to "śakt":
śakt + ibhyām = śaktibhyām
śakti = śakt + i
I remove the final "i" and combine it with the respective pattern case ending this way:
i + bhyaḥ = ibhyaḥ
I add this to "śakt":
śakt + ibhyaḥ = śaktibhyaḥ
GENITIVE
DUAL PLURAL
शक्त्योः शक्तीनाम्
śaktyoḥ
(of the two powers)
śaktīnām
(of the powers)
śakti = śakt + i
I remove the final "i" and combine it with the respective pattern case ending this way:
i + oḥ = ioḥ
"ioḥ" is converted into "yoḥ" by the 4th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi
I add this to "śakt":

śakt + yoḥ = śaktyoḥ
śakti = śakt + i
I remove the final "i" and combine it with the respective pattern case ending, but this time I lenghten the final "i" and add "n" as a kind of "bridge":
1) "i" is transformed into "ī"; 2) "n" is added and 3) the respective pattern case ending is added in the end

ī + n+ ām = īnām
I add this to "śakt":
śakt + īnām = śaktīnām
LOCATIVE
DUAL PLURAL
शक्त्योः शक्तिषु
śaktyoḥ
(in/on/etc. the two powers)
śaktiṣu
(in/on/etc. the powers)
śakti = śakt + i
I remove the final "i" and combine it with the respective pattern case ending this way:
i + oḥ = ioḥ
"ioḥ" is converted into "yoḥ" by the 4th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi
I add this to "śakt":

śakt + yoḥ = śaktyoḥ
śakti = śakt + i
I remove the final "i" and combine it with the respective pattern case ending this way:
i + su = iṣu
("s" is transformed into "ṣ" by a rule of Consonant Sandhi)
I add this to "śakt":

śakt + iṣu = śaktiṣu

Of course, in "real" world the vowel ("i" in this case) is already included in the set of terminations, and you have merely to replace that final vowel with the respective ending so that you do not have to separate the final vowel from the crude form or Prātipadika, add to termination and then join everything together again. Got it? You will grasp what I meant while studying the next topic. Nonetheless, it is very useful to understand what is the "standard" procedure to properly decline a noun or adjective.

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 Nouns and adjectives ending in "A"

This group has practically a set of terminations of its own. Nevertheless, is to be noted a little similarity between these terminations and the pattern case endings. Remember that all nouns and adjectives ending in "a" are masculine or neuter. Pay attention:

ENDINGS FOR MASCULINE NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES ENDING IN "A"

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative अः आः
aḥ au āḥ
Vocative आः
a au āḥ
Accusative अम् आन्
am au ān
Instrumental एन आभ्याम् ऐः
ena ābhyām aiḥ
Dative आय आभ्याम् एभ्यः
āya ābhyām ebhyaḥ
Ablative आत् आभ्याम् एभ्यः
āt ābhyām ebhyaḥ
Genitive अस्य अयोः आनाम्
asya ayoḥ ānām
Locative अयोः एषु
e ayoḥ eṣu

ENDINGS FOR NEUTER NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES ENDING IN "A"

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative अम् आनि
am e āni
Vocative आनि
a e āni
Accusative अम् आनि
am e āni
The rest is like the masculine ones

To decline these nouns and adjectives, I just substitute any of the previous terminations for the final "a". As I said to you before, the procedure of declension has been simplified by including the final vowel in the terminations themselves. An example now of how to decline properly a masculine noun ending in "a" --Śiva, in this case--. Remember that the word "Śiva" means "Auspicious":

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative शिवः शिवौ शिवाः
śivaḥ śivau śivāḥ
Śiva The two Śiva-s The Śiva-s
Vocative शिव शिवौ शिवाः
śiva śivau śivāḥ
O Śiva! / Eh Śiva! O both of Śiva-s! / Eh both of Śiva-s! O Śiva-s! / Eh Śiva-s!
Accusative शिवम् शिवौ शिवान्
śivam śivau śivān
To Śiva To the two Śiva-s To the Śiva-s
Instrumental शिवेन शिवाभ्याम् शिवैः
śivena śivābhyām śivaiḥ
By/through/along with/etc. Śiva By/through/along with/etc. the two Śiva-s By/through/along with/etc. the Śiva-s
Dative शिवाय शिवाभ्याम् शिवेभ्यः
śivāya śivābhyām śivebhyaḥ
To/for/etc. Śiva To/for/etc. the two Śiva-s To/for/etc. the Śiva-s
Ablative शिवात् शिवाभ्याम् शिवेभ्यः
śivāt śivābhyām śivebhyaḥ
From/on account of/etc. Śiva From/on account of/etc. the two Śiva-s From/on account of/etc. the Śiva-s
Genitive शिवस्य शिवयोः शिवानाम्
śivasya śivayoḥ śivānām
Of Śiva / Śiva's Of the two Śiva-s Of the Śiva-s / Śiva-s'
Locative शिवे शिवयोः शिवेषु
śive śivayoḥ śiveṣu
In/on/etc. Śiva In/on/etc. the two Śiva-s In/on/etc. the Śiva-s

And one example of how to decline a neuter noun ending in "a". I will use the word "āsana" --which means posture as well as seat--:

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative आसनम् आसने आसनानि
āsanam āsane āsanāni
Posture/seat The two postures/seats The postures/seats
Vocative आसन आसने आसनानि
āsana āsane āsanāni
O posture/seat! O both of postures/seats! O postures/seats!
Accusative आसनम् आसने आसनानि
āsanam āsane āsanāni
To the posture/seat To the two postures/seats To the postures/seats
The rest is like the masculine nouns

The termination "āni" is changed to "āṇi" when the noun or adjective contains "r, ṣ, ṛ or ṝ" although a vowel, a semivowel (except "L"), a nasal, a guttural or labial, or "h" comes between "r, ṣ, ṛ or ṝ" and "n" of "āni". In short, if there are between both of them any letter that is not a vowel, a semivowel (except "L"), a nasal, a guttural or labial, or "h", "āni" remains the same without any change at all. This is the 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi. Remember that the Sibilants is not a group apart, even though it seems so. "Śa" is a palatal, "ṣa" is a cerebral and "sa" is a dental letter. Go to Alphabet (English - variant). So, if any sibilant comes between "r, ṣ, ṛ or ṝ" and "n" of "āni", no change occurs. Examples:

cakra + āni = cakrāṇi (the change occurs because a vowel comes between "r" in "cakra" and "n" in "āni"). The word "cakra" means "wheel, group, etc.".

gṛha + āni = gṛhāṇi (the change occurs because "h" and a vowel comes between "ṛ" in "gṛha" and "n" in "āni"). The word "gṛha" means "house".

hṛdaya + āni = hṛdayāni (no change occurs because the dental "d" comes between "ṛ" in "hṛdaya" and "n" in "āni"). Since "d" is neither a vowel nor a "y", "r" or "v" (all semivowels except "l") nor a nasal nor a guttural nor a labial nor "h", "āni" will remain the same.

It was very simple, wasn't it?

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 Nouns and adjectives ending in "Ā"

Just as the preceding group of nouns and adjectives ending in "a", this one also has practically a set of terminations of its own. Nevertheless, is to be noted a little similarity between these terminations and the pattern case endings. Remember that all nouns and adjectives ending in "ā" in their crude form (Prātipadika) are "mostly" feminine, that is to say, there are several masculine ones too (generally nouns and adjectives being derived from roots ending in "ā"). Regarding masculine nouns and adjectives ending in "ā", there are two situations:

1) As far as those having a root as the latter member is concerned, the final "ā" is to be dropped before the terminations only from the Accusative (pl.) case on.
2) But, if the latter member is not a root, that "ā" is not dropped, "except in dual number!" Thus, you will find that Accusative (pl.), Dative (sing.), Ablative (sing.), Genitive (sing.) and Locative (sing.) have been changed in accordance with the 2nd and 3rd Primary Rules of Vowel Sandhi. In other words, you have to combine that "ā" not being dropped with the respective termination of the abovementioned cases: ā + aḥ = āḥ (Accusative pl.); ā + e = ai (Dative sing.); ā + aḥ = āḥ (Ablative sing.); ā + aḥ = āḥ (Genitive sing.) and ā + i = e (Locative sing.). Thank God this kind of nouns and adjectives are rarely seen. I am giving you an example of one ("Hāhā", the name of a Gandharva or Heavenly Musician) here.

ENDINGS FOR MASCULINE NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES ENDING IN "Ā"

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative आः आः
āḥ au āḥ
Vocative आः आः
āḥ au āḥ
Accusative आम् अः
ām au aḥ
Instrumental आभ्याम् आभिः
ā ābhyām ābhiḥ
Dative आभ्याम् आभ्यः
e ābhyām ābhyaḥ
Ablative अः आभ्याम् आभ्यः
aḥ ābhyām ābhyaḥ
Genitive अः ओः आम्
aḥ oḥ ām
Locative ओः आसु
i oḥ āsu

ENDINGS FOR FEMININE NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES ENDING IN "Ā"

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative आः
ā e āḥ
Vocative आः
e e āḥ
Accusative आम् आः
ām e āḥ
Instrumental अया आभ्याम् आभिः
ayā ābhyām ābhiḥ
Dative आयै आभ्याम् आभ्यः
āyai ābhyām ābhyaḥ
Ablative आयाः आभ्याम् आभ्यः
āyāḥ ābhyām ābhyaḥ
Genitive आयाः अयोः आनाम्
āyāḥ ayoḥ ānām
Locative आयाम् अयोः आसु
āyām ayoḥ āsu

To decline these nouns and adjectives, I just substitute any of the previous terminations for the final "ā". Two examples now of how to decline properly a masculine noun and a feminine one ending in "ā" --viśvapā (Protector of the world) and Umā (one of the Śiva's wifes), the former is masculine and the latter is feminine--. Remember that the word "Umā" means "splendor, light, etc.". As you surely know, Umā is one of the wifes of Śiva in the mythology. A last thing, since "viśvapā" has the root "pā" (to protect) as its latter member, its final "ā" is to be dropped before the terminations from Accusative pl. on --See 1) in red color above--:

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative विश्वपाः विश्वपौ विश्वपाः
viśvapāḥ viśvapau viśvapāḥ
Protector of the world The two Protectors of the world The Protectors of the world
Vocative विश्वपाः विश्वपौ विश्वपाः
viśvapāḥ viśvapau viśvapāḥ
Oh Protector of the world! /
Eh Protector of the world!
Oh both of Protectors of the world! / Eh both of Protectors of the world! Oh Protectors of the world!
Accusative विश्वपाम् विश्वपौ विश्वपः
viśvapām viśvapau viśvapaḥ
To the Protector of the world To the two Protectors
of the world
To the Protectors of the world
Instrumental विश्वपा विश्वपाभ्याम् विश्वपाभिः
viśvapā viśvapābhyām viśvapābhiḥ
By/through/along with/etc.
the Protector of the world
By/through/along with/etc.
the two Protectors of the world
By/through/along with/etc.
the Protectors of the world
Dative विश्वपे विश्वपाभ्याम् विश्वपाभ्यः
viśvape viśvapābhyām viśvapābhyaḥ
To/for/etc. the Protector
of the world
To/for/etc. the two Protectors
of the world
To/for/etc. the Protectors
of the world
Ablative विश्वपः विश्वपाभ्याम् विश्वपाभ्यः
viśvapaḥ viśvapābhyām viśvapābhyaḥ
From/on account of/etc.
the Protector of the world
From/on account of/etc.
the two Protectors of the world
From/on account of/etc.
the Protectors of the world
Genitive विश्वपः विश्वपोः विश्वपाम्
viśvapaḥ viśvapoḥ viśvapām
Of the Protector of the world Of the two Protectors
of the world
Of the Protectors of the world
Locative विश्वपि विश्वपोः विश्वपासु
viśvapi viśvapoḥ viśvapāsu
In/on/etc. the Protector
of the world
In/on/etc. the two Protectors
of the world
In/on/etc. the Protectors
of the world
CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative उमा उमे उमाः
umā ume umāḥ
Umā The two Umā-s The Umā-s
Vocative उमे उमे उमाः
ume ume umāḥ
O Umā! / Eh Umā! O both of Umā-s! / Eh both of Umā-s! O Umā-s! / Eh Umā-s!
Accusative उमाम् उमे उमाः
umām ume umāḥ
To Umā To the two Umā-s To the Umā-s
Instrumental उमया उमाभ्याम् उमाभिः
umayā umābhyām umābhiḥ
By/through/along with/etc. Umā By/through/along with/etc.
the two Umā-s
By/through/along with/etc.
the Umā-s
Dative उमायै उमाभ्याम् उमाभ्यः
umāyai umābhyām umābhyaḥ
To/for/etc. Umā To/for/etc. the two Umā-s To/for/etc. the Umā-s
Ablative उमायाः उमाभ्याम् उमाभ्यः
umāyāḥ umābhyām umābhyaḥ
From/on account of/etc. Umā From/on account of/etc.
the two Umā-s
From/on account of/etc.
the Umā-s
Genitive उमायाः उमयोः उमानाम्
umāyāḥ umayoḥ umānām
Of Umā / Umā's Of the two Umā-s Of the Umā-s / Umā-s'
Locative उमायाम् उमयोः उमासु
umāyām umayoḥ umāsu
In/on/etc. Umā In/on/etc. the two Umā-s In/on/etc. the Umā-s

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 Concluding remarks

It has been a simple job this time. The same mechanics of declension is to be followed when you face other noun or adjective terminations, no matter how strange the ending may be. Next document I will keep teaching you how to decline properly. In sum, you will find more tables with endings and many examples of course.

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 Further information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.