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 Learning Sanskrit - Numbers (1) (English)

Sanskrit numbers (Cardinals)


 Introduction

This is Gabriel Pradīpaka. Another chance to enrich our Sanskrit knowledge. We have learnt lots of things so far, and now it is time to start to learn Sanskrit Numbers. Remember that there are two kind of Numbers: Cardinals and Ordinals. Cardinals are: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.; and Ordinals are: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, etc.

This is a first approach to the study of the Sanskrit Numbers. We will not study Declension for the time being. I will only give a brief explanation. Declension, in a word, consists in transforming the end of a noun, substantive or adjective in order to show different cases (Nominative, Accusative, ...). When a word is in a crude form is denominated "prātipadika". For example: "Yoga, Saṁskṛta, Deva, Guru" (Yoga or union, Sanskrit, God, Guru) are prātipadika-s because there is no Declension applied to them. However, if you wish to express the following: "of Yoga, of Sanskrit, of God, of the Guru", you will have to transform (inflect) the final part of Yoga, Saṁskṛta, Deva and Guru words this way:

Yogasya, Saṁskṛtasya, Devasya, Guroḥ/unaḥ

I will explain completely Declension to you later, through another document. I will write the numbers only in their crude form (prātipadika) in this document. After you have learnt Declension in the future, I will publish a Numbers Appendix, which will deal with Number Declension. Be patient.

Prātipadika-s (crude forms of any words) are used in Compounds. When you build a compound, you generally decline the last word, not the rest. There are exceptions, of course. For example, if you have to translate "Yoga of Knowledge" into Sanskrit, you would write firstly:

Jñānayoga

"Jñāna" is knowledge, and "yoga" is Yoga (union or uniting). Well, to form that compound was very easy. However, it is just the crude form of the compound (no declensions). But, if you had to write "for Yoga of Knowledge", how will you insert "for"? Through Declension. You will have only to decline or transform the final part of "yoga" word. "Jñāna" word remains the same. It remains prātipadika. Thus:

Jñānayogāya

Numbers in their crude form (prātipadika) are used generally in compounds. There are several exceptions in which you will have to transform the crude form into a special form to be utilized in compounds (as "pañcan" --five--, which is changed into "pañca" when it is used in a compound).

And now, one example by using number two (dvi) in a compound. Note that I have utilized "dvi" in its crude form (prātipadika):

Dvipa

(lit. "drinking --pa-- twice --dvi--", the elephant)

But if you had to translate into Sanskrit "the three elephants", you must use Declension. On one hand, if you keep the words separately, you should decline both of them. On the other hand, if you are forming a compound, you should only decline the last word in the compound.

Remember that you are not actually learning how to decline now, it is just an informative example. If you are going to keep the words separately you should write:

Trayo dvipāḥ

Observe how the final "āḥ" indicates plural number of crude form "dvipa" (elephant). The next declension is in "trayaḥ", which changes into "trayo" due to a Sandhi or Combination rule that we will study on another document later. The original crude form "tri" (three) has been changed into "trayaḥ" in order to show Nominative case... Nevertheless, do not worry friend. It is just an example.

In turn, if you want to form a compound, simply join the two words together:

Tridvipāḥ

In this case, "tri" (three) remains prātipadika or crude form, and declension is only applied to the last word of the compound (dvipāḥ=elephants). It is enough for the time being. Let us start studying the numbers themselves right now.

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 Cardinals: 0-9

There are five columns. First column: Sanskrit numbers. Second column: Usual numbers (ours). Third column: Names of the Cardinals. Fourth column: Transliteration of the previous names. Fifth column: Comments.

0 शून्य śūnya --
1 एक eka --
2 द्वि dvi --
3 त्रि trí --
4 चतुर् catur Final "r" is sometimes changed into "s", "ś" or "ḥ" according to definite Sandhi or Combination rules
5 पञ्चन् pañcan "Pañca" is the special form to be used in compounds (in short, "n" is dropped)
6 षष् ṣaṣ "Ṣaṭ(ḍ)" is the special form to be used in compounds
7 सप्तन् saptan "Sapta" is the special form to be used in compounds
8 अष्टन् aṣṭan "Aṣṭa" is the special form to be used in compounds
9 नवन् navan "Nava" is the special form to be used in compounds

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 Cardinals: 10-29

Let us keep learning Sanskrit Numbers. Observe attentively the position of the written accent.

१० 10 दशन् daśan "Daśa" is the special form to be used in compounds. The same rule of dropping "n" is applied to the rest of numbers ending in "daśan"
११ 11 एकादशन् ekādaśan "eka" (one) is transformed into "ekā" when added to "daśan" (ten).
१२ 12 द्वादशन् dvādaśan "dvi" (two) is transformed into "dvā" when added to "daśan" (ten)
१३ 13 त्रयोदशन् trayodaśan "trí" (three) is firstly transformed into "trayaḥ", and then into "trayo"
१४ 14 चतुर्दशन् caturdaśan --
१५ 15 पञ्चदशन् pañcadaśan "Pañca" and not "pañcan" is to be used in compounds
१६ 16 षोडशन् ṣoḍaśan "Ṣaṣ" becomes "ṣo" and "d" in "daśan" is turned into "ḍ"
१७ 17 सप्तदशन् saptadaśan "Sapta" and not "saptan" is the special form to be used in compounds
१८ 18 अष्टादशन् aṣṭādaśan "Aṣṭa", the special form of "aṣṭan" (eight), which is used in compounds, is changed into "aṣṭā"
१९ 19 नवदशन् or एकोनविंशति or  ऊनविंशति or एकान्नविंशति navadaśan or ekonaviṁśati or ūnaviṁśati or ekānnaviṁśati The words "ekona = eka + ūna"; "ūna" and "ekānna = ekān + na" mean "minus one". "Viṁśati" means "twenty". So, the idea is "twenty minus one=19".
२० 20 विंशति viṁśati --
२१ 21 एकविंशति ekaviṁśati "Eka" is not transformed into "ekā" as previously in "ekādaśan" (eleven)
२२ 22 द्वाविंशति dvāviṁśati "Dvi" (two) is transformed into "dvā" when added to "viṁśati" (twenty)
२३ 23 त्रयोविंशति trayoviṁśati "Tri" (three) is firstly transformed into "trayaḥ", and then into "trayo"
२४ 24 चतुर्विंशति caturviṁśati --
२५ 25 पञ्चविंशति pañcaviṁśati "Pañca" and not "pañcan" is to be used in compounds
२६ 26 षड्विंशति ṣaḍviṁśati "Ṣaṭ(ḍ)" and not "ṣaṣ" is the special form to be used generally in compounds
२७ 27 सप्तविंशति saptaviṁśati "Sapta" and not "saptan" is the special form to be used in compounds
२८ 28 अष्टाविंशति aṣṭāviṁśati "Aṣṭa", the special form of "aṣṭan" (eight), which is used in compounds, is changed into "aṣṭā"
२९ 29 नवविंशति or एकोनत्रिंशत् or  ऊनत्रिंशत् or एकान्नत्रिंशत् navaviṁśati or ekonatriṁśat or ūnatriṁśat or ekānnatriṁśat The words "ekona = eka + ūna"; "ūna" and "ekānna = ekān + na" mean "minus one". "Triṁśat" means "thirty". So, the idea is "thirty minus one=29".

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 Cardinals: 30-49

Twenty more numbers:

३० 30 त्रिंशत् triṁśat --
३१ 31 एकत्रिंशत् ekatriṁśat "Eka" (one) is not transformed into "ekā" as previously in "ekādaśan" (eleven)
३२ 32 द्वात्रिंशत् dvātriṁśat "Dvi" (two) is transformed into "dvā" when added to "triṁśat" (thirty)
३३ 33 त्रयस्त्रिंशत् trayastriṁśat "Tri" (three) is firstly transformed into "trayaḥ", and then into "trayas"
३४ 34 चतुस्त्रिंशत् catustriṁśat "Catur" is transformed into "catus"
३५ 35 पञ्चत्रिंशत् pañcatriṁśat "Pañca" and not "pañcan" is to be used in compounds
३६ 36 षट्त्रिंशत् ṣaṭtriṁśat "Ṣaṭ(ḍ)" and not "ṣaṣ" is the special form to be used generally in compounds
३७ 37 सप्तत्रिंशत् saptatriṁśat "Sapta" and not "saptan" is the special form to be used in compounds
३८ 38 अष्टात्रिंशत् aṣṭātriṁśat "Aṣṭa", the special form of "aṣṭan" (eight), which is used in compounds, is changed into "aṣṭā"
३९ 39 नवत्रिंशत् or एकोनचत्वारिंशत् or  ऊनचत्वारिंशत् or  एकान्नचत्वारिंशत् navatriṁśat or ekonacatvāriṁśat or ūnacatvāriṁśat or ekānnacatvāriṁśat The words "ekona = eka + ūna"; "ūna" and "ekānna = ekān + na" mean "minus one". "Catvāriṁśat" means "forty". So, the idea is "forty minus one=39".
४० 40 चत्वारिंशत् catvāriṁśat --
४१ 41 एकचत्वारिंशत् ekacatvāriṁśat "Eka" is not transformed into "ekā" as previously in "ekādaśan" (eleven)
४२ 42 द्वाचत्वारिंशत् dvācatvāriṁśat "Dvi" (two) is transformed into "dvā" when added to "catvāriṁśat" (forty)
४३ 43 त्रयश्चत्वारिंशत् or त्रिचत्वारिंशत् trayaścatvāriṁśat or tricatvāriṁśat "Tri" (three) is "optionally" transformed into "trayaḥ", and then into "trayaś"
४४ 44 चतुश्चत्वारिंशत् catuścatvāriṁśat "Catur" is transformed into "catuś"
४५ 45 पञ्चचत्वारिंशत् pañcacatvāriṁśat "Pañca" and not "pañcan" is to be used in compounds
४६ 46 षट्चत्वारिंशत् ṣaṭcatvāriṁśat "Ṣaṭ(ḍ)" and not "ṣaṣ" is the special form to be used generally in compounds
४७ 47 सप्तचत्वारिंशत् saptacatvāriṁśat "Sapta" and not "saptan" is the special form to be used in compounds
४८ 48 अष्टाचत्वारिंशत् or अष्टचत्वारिंशत् aṣṭācatvāriṁśat or aṣṭacatvāriṁśat "Aṣṭa", the special form of "aṣṭan" (eight), which is used in compounds, is "optionally" changed into "aṣṭā"
४९ 49 नवचत्वारिंशत् or एकोनपञ्चाशत् or ऊनपञ्चाशत् or एकान्नपञ्चाशत् navacatvāriṁśat or ekonapañcāśat or ūnapañcāśat or ekānnapañcāśat The words "ekona = eka + ūna"; "ūna" and "ekānna = ekān + na" mean "minus one". "Pañcāśat" means "fifty". So, the idea is "fifty minus one=49".

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 Cardinals: 50-69

Let us keep learning Sanskrit Numbers:

५० 50 पञ्चाशत् pañcāśat --
५१ 51 एकपञ्चाशत् ekapañcāśat "Eka" (one) is not transformed into "ekā" as previously in "ekādaśan" (eleven)
५२ 52 द्वापञ्चाशत् or द्विपञ्चाशत् dvāpañcāśat or dvipañcāśat "Dvi" (two) is optionally transformed into "dvā" when added to "pañcāśat" (fifty)
५३ 53 त्रयःपञ्चाशत् or त्रिपञ्चाशत् trayaḥpañcāśat or tripañcāśat "Trí" (three) is optionally transformed into "trayaḥ"
५४ 54 चतुःपञ्चाशत् catuḥpañcāśat "Catur" is transformed into "catuḥ"
५५ 55 पञ्चपञ्चाशत् pañcapañcāśat "Pañca" and not "pañcan" is to be used in compounds
५६ 56 षट्पञ्चाशत् ṣaṭpañcāśat "Ṣaṭ(ḍ)" and not "ṣaṣ" is the special form to be used generally in compounds
५७ 57 सप्तपञ्चाशत् saptapañcāśat "Sapta" and not "saptan" is the special form to be used in compounds
५८ 58 अष्टापञ्चाशत् or अष्टपञ्चाशत् aṣṭāpañcāśat or aṣṭapañcāśat "Aṣṭa", the special form of "aṣṭan" (eight), which is used in compounds, is "optionally" changed into "aṣṭā"
५९ 59 नवपञ्चाशत् or एकोनषष्टि or  ऊनषष्टि or एकान्नषष्टि navapañcāśat or ekonaṣaṣṭi or ūnaṣaṣṭi or ekānnaṣaṣṭi The words "ekona = eka + ūna"; "ūna" and "ekānna = ekān + na" mean "minus one". "Ṣaṣṭi" means "sixty". So, the idea is "sixty minus one=59".
६० 60 षष्टि ṣaṣṭí --
६९ 61 एकषष्टि ekaṣaṣṭi "Eka" is not transformed into "ekā" as previously in "ekādaśan" (eleven)
६२ 62 द्वाषष्टि or द्विषष्टि dvāṣaṣṭi or dviṣaṣṭi "Dvi" (two) is optionally transformed into "dvā" when added to "ṣaṣṭi" (sixty)
६३ 63 त्रयःषष्टि or त्रिषष्टि trayaḥṣaṣṭi or triṣaṣṭi "Trí" (three) is optionally transformed into "trayaḥ"
६४ 64 चतुष्षष्टि catuṣṣaṣṭi "Catur" is transformed into "catuṣ"
६५ 65 पञ्चषष्टि pañcaṣaṣṭi "Pañca" and not "pañcan" is to be used in compounds
६६ 66 षट्षष्टि ṣaṭṣaṣṭi "Ṣaṭ(ḍ)" and not "ṣaṣ" is the special form to be used generally in compounds
६७ 67 सप्तषष्टि saptaṣaṣṭi "Sapta" and not "saptan" is the special form to be used in compounds
६८ 68 अष्टाषष्टि or अष्टषष्टि aṣṭāṣaṣṭi or aṣṭaṣaṣṭi "Aṣṭa", the special form of "aṣṭan" (eight), which is used in compounds, is "optionally" changed into "aṣṭā"
६९ 69 नवषष्टि or एकोनसप्तति or ऊनसप्तति or एकान्नसप्तति navaṣaṣṭi or ekonasaptati or ūnasaptati or ekānnasaptati The words "ekona = eka + ūna"; "ūna" and "ekānna = ekān + na" mean "minus one". "Saptati" means "seventy". So, the idea is "seventy minus one=69".

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 Cardinals: 70-99

Thirty more numbers up to 99:

७० 70 सप्तति saptati --
७१ 71 एकसप्तति ekasaptati "Eka" (one) is not transformed into "ekā" as previously in "ekādaśan" (eleven)
७२ 72 द्वासप्तति or द्विसप्तति dvāsaptati or dvisaptati "Dvi" (two) is optionally transformed into "dvā" when added to "saptati" (seventy)
७३ 73 त्रयस्सप्तति or त्रिसप्तति trayassaptati or trisaptati "Trí" (three) is optionally transformed into "trayaḥ", and then into "trayas"
७४ 74 चतुस्सप्तति catussaptati "Catur" is transformed into "catus"
७५ 75 पञ्चसप्तति pañcasaptati "Pañca" and not "pañcan" is to be used in compounds
७६ 76 षट्सप्तति ṣaṭsaptati "Ṣaṭ(ḍ)" and not "ṣaṣ" is the special form to be used generally in compounds
७७ 77 सप्तसप्तति saptasaptati "Sapta" and not "saptan" is the special form to be used in compounds
७८ 78 अष्टासप्तति or अष्टसप्तति aṣṭāsaptati or aṣṭasaptati "Aṣṭa", the special form of "aṣṭan" (eight), which is used in compounds, is "optionally" changed into "aṣṭā"
७९ 79 नवसप्तति or एकोनाशीति or
ऊनाशीति or एकान्नाशीति
navasaptati or ekonāśīti or ūnāśīti or ekānnāśīti The words "ekona = eka + ūna"; "ūna" and "ekānna = ekān + na" mean "minus one". "Aśīti" means "eighty". So, the idea is "eighty minus one=79".
८० 80 अशीति aśīti --
८९ 81 एकाशीति ekāśīti "Eka" is not transformed into "ekā" as previously in "ekādaśan" (eleven). "Eka" + "aśīti" = "ekāśiti".
८२ 82 द्व्यशीति dvyaśīti "Dvi" (two) is not transformed into "dvā", but "dvy" when added to "aśīti" (eighty)
८३ 83 त्र्यशीति tryaśīti "Trí" (three) is not transformed into "trayaḥ", but "try" when added to "aśīti" (eighty)
८४ 84 चतुरशीति caturaśīti --
८५ 85 पञ्चाशीति pañcāśīti "Pañca" and not "pañcan" is to be used in compounds. "Pañca" + "aśīti" = "pañcāśīti".
८६ 86 षडशीति ṣaḍaśīti "Ṣaṭ(ḍ)" and not "ṣaṣ" is the special form to be used generally in compounds
८७ 87 सप्ताशीति saptāśīti "Sapta" and not "saptan" is the special form to be used in compounds. "Sapta" + "aśīti" = "saptāśīti".
८८ 88 अष्टाशीति aṣṭāśīti "Aṣṭa" --the special form of "aṣṭan" (eight), which is used in compounds-- + "aśīti" = "aṣṭāśīti".
८९ 89 नवाशीति or एकोननवति or
ऊननवति or एकान्ननवति
návāśīti or ekonanavati or ūnanavati or ekānnanavati The words "ekona = eka + ūna"; "ūna" and "ekānna = ekān + na" mean "minus one". "Navati" means "ninety". So, the idea is "ninety minus one=89".
९० 90 नवति navati --
९१ 91 एकनवति ekanavati "Eka" (one) is not transformed into "ekā" as previously in "ekādaśan" (eleven)
९२ 92 द्वानवति or द्विनवति dvānavati or dvinavati "Dvi" (two) is optionally transformed into "dvā" when added to "navati" (ninety)
९३ 93 त्रयोनवति or त्रिनवति trayonavati or trinavati "Trí" (three) is optionally transformed into "trayaḥ", and then into "trayo".
९४ 94 चतुर्नवति caturnavati --
९५ 95 पञ्चनवति pañcanavati "Pañca" and not "pañcan" is to be used in compounds
९६ 96 षण्णवति ṣaṇṇavati "Ṣaṭ(ḍ)" and not "ṣaṣ" is the special form to be used generally in compounds. "Ṣaṭ(ḍ)" must be transformed into "ṣaṇ" here.
९७ 97 सप्तनवति saptanavati "Sapta" and not "saptan" is the special form to be used in compounds
९८ 98 अष्टानवति or अष्टनवति aṣṭānavati or aṣṭanavati "Aṣṭa", the special form of "aṣṭan" (eight), which is used in compounds, is "optionally" changed into "aṣṭā"
९९ 99 नवनवति or एकोनशत or
ऊनशत or एकान्नशत
navanavati or ekonaśata or ūnaśata or ekānnaśata The words "ekona = eka + ūna"; "ūna" and "ekānna = ekān + na" mean "minus one". "Śata" means "one hundred". So, the idea is "one hundred minus one=99".

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 Cardinals: 100 and beyond...

No comments included on the Table. The numbers are in their crude form (prātipadika). No declensions being applied to them.

१०० 100 शत śata
२०० 200 द्विशत or द्वेशते dviśata or dveśate
३०० 300 त्रिशत triśata
४०० 400 चतुःशत catuḥśata
५०० 500 पञ्चशत pañcaśata
६०० 600 षट्शत ṣaṭśata
७०० 700 सप्तशत saptaśata
८०० 800 अष्टशत aṣṭaśata
९०० 900 नवशत navaśata
१००० 1,000 सहस्र or दशशत sahasra or daśaśata
२००० 2,000 द्विसहस्र dvisahasra
३००० 3,000 त्रिसहस्र trisahasra
४००० 4,000 चतःसहस्र catuḥsahasra
५००० 5,000 पञ्चसहस्र pañcasahasra
६००० 6,000 षट्सहस्र ṣaṭsahasra
७००० 7,000 सप्तसहस्र saptasahasra
८००० 8,000 अष्टसहस्र aṣṭasahasra
९००० 9,000 नवसहस्र navasahasra
१०००० 10,000 अयुत ayuta
१००००० 100,000 लक्ष lakṣa or lakṣā
१०००००० 1,000,000 प्रयुत prayuta
१००००००० 10,000,000 कोटि koṭi
१०००००००० 100,000,000 अर्बुद árbuda
१००००००००० 1,000,000,000 अब्ज abja
१०००००००००० 10,000,000,000 खर्व kharva
१००००००००००० 100,000,000,000 निखर्व nikharva
१०००००००००००० 1,000,000,000,000 महापद्म mahāpadma
१००००००००००००० 10,000,000,000,000 शङ्कु śaṅku
१०००००००००००००० 100,000,000,000,000 जलधि jaladhi
१००००००००००००००० 1,000,000,000,000,000 अन्त्य antya
१०००००००००००००००० 10,000,000,000,000,000 मध्य madhya
१००००००००००००००००० 100,000,000,000,000,000 परार्ध parārdha

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 Concluding remarks

The first part of this long document set has been finished. Numbers is composed of 2 web pages: "Numbers: Sanskrit Numbers (Cardinals)" and "Numbers: Sanskrit Numbers (Ordinals)". You have learnt how to write Cardinals. You should practice for a long time in order to fully understand the numbers. On "Numbers: Appendix 1 --Sanskrit Numbers-- (Examples)" you will have a chance to practice even more. And now, go to Numbers: Sanskrit Numbers (Ordinals) and keep studying.

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 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.