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 Learning Sanskrit - Numbers (3) (English)

How to decline numbers in Sanskrit


 Introduction

Gabriel Pradīpaka again. Time for declension now. If you do not know what declension is, go to Declension pages and find out. Anyway, let me tell you this much about declension:

In Numbers (1) (English) and Numbers (2) (English) I taught you Sanskrit numbers in their "crude form" or "prātipadika". The crude form of any noun, adjective, pronoun or numeral is that in which the noun, adjective, pronoun or numeral is devoid of gender and number, and, of course, it does not contain any of the eight cases (Nominative, Vocative, etc.). That is why it is a crude form and not a declined one. For example: "eka" (one). It is neither masculine nor feminine nor neuter nor singular nor dual nor plural... it is just... a prātipadika or crude form, got it? Well, when you search a noun, adjective, pronoun or numeral in a dictionary, you will mostly get prātipadika-s of those words, even though sometimes their inflected or declined forms for the Nominative, etc. cases may be added as further information. Still, you will not use prātipadika-s in real sentences, except in compounds, despite the Vocative case may often coincide with the prātipadika (e.g. the word "yoga" is the prātipadika as well as the declined form for the Vocative case). Regarding numbers, you will have to decline them accordingly by following simple "outlines" and "rules". As you know, "simple" in Sanskrit is tantamount to "complicated" for the average person, and "complicated" in Sanskrit is "the worst thing you will face in your short lifetime". Joking apart, the rules are really... simple... trust me, hehe.

In a sentence, a number will act as an adjective. Firstly, you will have to decline it properly, i.e. to give it gender, number and case, because the noun it qualifies has gender, number and case. For example, if you want to write "one man", you cannot write "eka naraḥ", because "eka" is a prātipadika while "naraḥ" is a masculine noun ending in "a" and correctly declined in Nominative singular. Thus, you have to change "eka" to "ekaḥ" (masculine and singular). So, the proper sentence is to be written "ekaḥ naraḥ". Now, you must polish it by using the 2nd Rule of Visarga Sandhi: "eka+u naraḥ" (Note that Visarga ḥ has been transformed into "u"). Then, join "a" and "u" together to form "o" by the 2nd Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi. OK, I will not explain this double process anymore on the page. I will only say that the change is due to the 2nd Rule of Visarga Sandhi, understood? Good.

You might also have written: "ekanaraḥ". This is a compound in which you do not need to decline the number "eka" (remember that in a compound the last term is "generally" declined... there are exceptions). This kind of compound including numerals is known as "Dvigu". But, since I am teaching you compounds in the Compounds documents, you know, not here, I will not keep talking about this topic for now. Enough, let us start declining numerals.

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 Declining Cardinals: 1-4

These four numerals are not "uniform", that is, they have special forms for every gender (masculine, feminine and neuter). Besides, they are not always declined in singular, dual and plural such as any other ordinary adjective, but they follow their own rules in that respect.

Eka (one)

"Eka" is declined in the singular when it means "one" (the numeral). Besides, it is also declined in dual and plural when it does not mean "one" (e.g. it also means "alone, the same, identical, etc."). I am taking for granted that you are proficient to a certain extent as far as declension is concerned... no, I am not joking. If not so, go read the Declension documents right now or you will not understand my teaching. Of course, "eka" will accept the three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). Let us decline "eka" in singular now:

CASES Singular - Masculine Singular - Feminine Singular - Neuter
Nominative एकः - ekaḥ एका - ekā एकम् - ekam
One One One
Vocative एक - eka एके - eke Like the masculine gender
O one! / Eh one! O one! / Eh one!
Accusative एकम् - ekam एकाम् - ekām
To one To one
Instrumental एकेन - ekena एकया - ekayā
By/through/along with/etc. one By/through/along with/etc. one
Dative एकस्मै - ekasmai एकस्यै - ekasyai
To/for/etc. one To/for/etc. one
Ablative एकस्मात् - ekasmāt एकस्याः - ekasyāḥ
From/on account of/etc. one From/on account of/etc. one
Genitive एकस्य - ekasya एकस्याः - ekasyāḥ
Of one Of one
Locative एकस्मिन् - ekasmin एकस्याम् - ekasyām
In/on/etc. one In/on/etc. one
Dvi (two)

In turn, "dvi" (two) is declined only in dual number (neither singular nor plural). Naturally, it accepts the three genders too:

CASES Dual - Masculine Dual - Feminine Dual - Neuter
Nominative द्वौ - dvau द्वे - dve Like the feminine gender
Two - The two Two - The two
Vocative द्वौ - dvau द्वे - dve
O two! / Eh two! - O the two! / Eh the two! O two! / Eh two! - O the two! / Eh the two!
Accusative द्वौ - dvau द्वे - dve
To two - To the two To two - To the two
Instrumental द्वाभ्याम् - dvābhyām Like the masculine gender Like the masculine gender
By/through/along with/etc. two / By/through/along with/etc. the two
Dative द्वाभ्याम् - dvābhyām
To/for/etc. two - To/for/etc. the two
Ablative द्वाभ्याम् - dvābhyām
From/on account of/etc. two - From/on account of/etc. the two
Genitive द्वयोः - dvayoḥ
Of two - Of the two
Locative द्वयोः - dvayoḥ
In/on/etc. two - In/on/etc. the two
Trí (three)

On the other hand, "trí" (three) is declined only in plural (neither singular nor dual). Obviously, it also accepts the three genders:

CASES Plural - Masculine Plural - Feminine Plural - Neuter
Nominative त्रयः - trayaḥ तिस्रः - tisraḥ त्रीणि - trīṇi
Three / The three Three / The three Three / The three
Vocative त्रयः - trayaḥ तिस्रः - tisraḥ त्रीणि - trīṇi
O three! / Eh three! - O the three! / Eh the three! O three! / Eh three! - O the three! / Eh the three! O three! / Eh three! - O the three! / Eh the three!
Accusative त्रीन् - trīn तिस्रः - tisraḥ त्रीणि - trīṇi
To three - To the three To three - To the three To three - To the three
Instrumental त्रिभिः - tribhiḥ तिसृभिः - tisṛbhiḥ Like the masculine gender
By/through/along with/etc. three - By/through/along with/etc. the three By/through/along with/etc. three - By/through/along with/etc. the three
Dative त्रिभ्यः - tribhyaḥ तिसृभ्यः - tisṛbhyaḥ
To/for/etc. three - To/for/etc. the three To/for/etc. three - To/for/etc. the three
Ablative त्रिभ्यः - tribhyaḥ तिसृभ्यः - tisṛbhyaḥ
From/on account of/etc. three - From/on account of/etc. the three From/on account of/etc. three - From/on account of/etc. the three
Genitive त्रयाणाम् - trayāṇām तिसृणाम् - tisṛṇām
Of three - Of the three Of three - Of the three
Locative त्रिषु - triṣu तिसृषु - tisṛṣu
In/on/etc. three - In/on/etc. the three In/on/etc. three - In/on/etc. the three
Catur (four)

Also, "catur" (four) is declined only in plural (neither singular nor dual). Obviously, it accepts the three genders like the previous numbers:

CASES Plural - Masculine Plural - Feminine Plural - Neuter
Nominative चत्वारः - catvāraḥ चतस्रः - catasraḥ चत्वारि - catvāri
Four / The four Four / The four Four / The four
Vocative चत्वारः - catvāraḥ चतस्रः - catasraḥ चत्वारि - catvāri
O four! / Eh four! - O the four! / Eh the four! O four! / Eh four! - O the four! / Eh the four! O four! / Eh four! - O the four! / Eh the four!
Accusative चतुरः - caturaḥ चतस्रः - catasraḥ चत्वारि - catvāri
To four - To the four To four - To the four To four - To the four
Instrumental चतुर्भिः - caturbhiḥ चतसृभिः - catasṛbhiḥ Like the masculine gender
By/through/along with/etc. four - By/through/along with/etc. the four By/through/along with/etc. four - By/through/along with/etc. the four
Dative चतुर्भ्यः - caturbhyaḥ चतसृभ्यः - catasṛbhyaḥ
To/for/etc. four - To/for/etc. the four To/for/etc. four - To/for/etc. the four
Ablative चतुर्भ्यः - caturbhyaḥ चतसृभ्यः - catasṛbhyaḥ
From/on account of/etc. four - From/on account of/etc. the four From/on account of/etc. four - From/on account of/etc. the four
Genitive चतुर्णाम् - caturṇām चतसृणाम् - catasṛṇām
Of four - Of the four Of four - Of the four
Locative चतुर्षु - caturṣu चतसृषु - catasṛṣu
In/on/etc. four - In/on/etc. the four In/on/etc. four - In/on/etc. the four
Some examples with one, two, three and four

A few simple examples of all that you have just learnt. I have highlighted the final result in dark red color. Of course, you should consult the above tables when necessary. Besides, be warned that I will only use four nouns (nara - man, narī - woman, pustaka - book and sthāna - place) to be qualified by the respective numerals for the sake of simplicity. I need your intellect "fresh" for the upcoming bombing of knowledge.

See the Declension documents (in Sanskrit section) for more information on declension, please.

Examples with "eka" (one). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in singular, of course:

  1. One man: ekaḥ naraḥ »» eko naraḥ (by the 2nd Rule of Visarga Sandhi). Note that "naraḥ" is the Nominative singular of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. One woman: ekā narī. Note that "narī" is the Nominative singular of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. One book: ekam pustakam »» ekaṁ pustakam (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "pustakam" is the Nominative singular of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With one man: ekena nareṇa. Note that "nareṇa" is the Instrumental singular of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In one place: ekasmin sthāne, or optionally, ekasmintsthāne (by the 15th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Or you might even join optionally the two words together without inserting any "t" in between: ekasminsthāne). Note that "sthāne" is the Locative singular of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Examples with "dvi" (two). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in dual, of course:

  1. Two men: dvau narau. Note that "narau" is the Nominative dual of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Two women: dvau naryau. Note that "naryau" is the Nominative dual of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Two books: dvau pustake. Note that "pustake" is the Nominative dual of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With two men: dvābhyām narābhyām »» dvābhyāṁ narābhyām (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "narābhyām" is the Instrumental dual of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In two places: dvayoḥ sthānayoḥ. Note that "sthānayoḥ" is the Locative dual of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Examples with "trí" (three). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. Three men: trayaḥ narāḥ »» trayo narāḥ (by the 2nd Rule of Visarga Sandhi). Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Three women: tisraḥ naryaḥ »» tisro naryaḥ (by the 2nd Rule of Visarga Sandhi). Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Three books: trīṇi pustakāni. Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With three men: tribhiḥ naraiḥ »» tribhir naraiḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» tribhirnaraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In three places: triṣu sthāneṣu. Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Examples with "catur" (four). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. Four men: catvāraḥ narāḥ »» catvāro narāḥ (by the 2nd Rule of Visarga Sandhi). Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Four women: catasraḥ naryaḥ »» catasro naryaḥ (by the 2nd Rule of Visarga Sandhi). Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Four books: catvāri pustakāni. Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With four men: caturbhiḥ naraiḥ »» caturbhir naraiḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» caturbhirnaraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In four places: caturṣu sthāneṣu. Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Let us study now the numbers 5 to 19 (navadaśan or navadaśan).

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 Declining Cardinals: 5-19 (19 as "navadaśAn or nAvadaśan")

These numerals are "uniform", that is, they do not have special forms for every gender (masculine, feminine and neuter), but all of them agree with each other. And they all are to be declined in plural number. We have been saved! Only five (pañcan), six (ṣaṣ) and eight (aṣṭan) present some particularities. But, seven (saptan), nine (navan), ten (daśan) up to nineteen (navadaśan or navadaśan) are declined like five (pañcan).

CASES Pañcan (5) Ṣaṣ (6) Aṣṭan (8)
Nominative पञ्च - pañca षट् - ṣaṭ अष्ट or अष्टौ - aṣṭa or aṣṭau
Five / The five Six / The six Eight / The eight
Vocative पञ्च - pañca षट् - ṣaṭ अष्ट or अष्टौ - aṣṭa or aṣṭau
O five! / Eh five! - O the five! / Eh the five! O six! / Eh six! - O the six! / Eh the six! O eight! / Eh eight! - O the eight! / Eh the eight!
Accusative पञ्च - pañca षट् - ṣaṭ अष्ट or अष्टौ - aṣṭa or aṣṭau
To five - To the five To six - To the six To eight - To the eight
Instrumental पञ्चभिः - pañcabhiḥ षड्भिः - ṣaḍbhiḥ अष्टभिः or अष्टाभिः - aṣṭabhiḥ or aṣṭābhiḥ
By/through/along with/etc. five - By/through/along with/etc. the five By/through/along with/etc. six - By/through/along with/etc. the six By/through/along with/etc. eight - By/through/along with/etc. the eight
Dative पञ्चभ्यः - pañcabhyaḥ षड्भ्यः - ṣaḍbhyaḥ अष्टभ्यः or अष्टाभ्यः - aṣṭabhyaḥ or aṣṭābhyaḥ
To/for/etc. five - To/for/etc. the five To/for/etc. six - To/for/etc. the six To/for/etc. eight - To/for/etc. the eight
Ablative पञ्चभ्यः - pañcabhyaḥ षड्भ्यः - ṣaḍbhyaḥ अष्टभ्यः or अष्टाभ्यः - aṣṭabhyaḥ or aṣṭābhyaḥ
From/on account of/etc. five - From/on account of/etc. the five From/on account of/etc. six - From/on account of/etc. the six From/on account of/etc. eight - From/on account of/etc. the eight
Genitive पञ्चानाम् - pañcānām षण्णाम् - ṣaṇṇām अष्टानाम् - aṣṭānām
Of five - Of the five Of six - Of the six Of eight - Of the eight
Locative पञ्चसु - pañcasu षट्सु - ṣaṭsu अष्टसु or अष्टासु - aṣṭasu or aṣṭāsu
In/on/etc. five - In/on/etc. the five In/on/etc. six - In/on/etc. the six In/on/etc. eight - In/on/etc. the eight

As I said before, seven, nine, ten up to nineteen (navadaśan or navadaśan) are declined like five. Anyway, as a mere example, I will show you how to decline seven (saptan), nine (navan) and nineteen (navadaśan or navadaśan).

CASES Saptan (7) Navan (9) Navadaśan or navadaśan (19)
Nominative सप्त - sapta नव - nava नवदश - navadaśa
Seven / The seven Nine / The nine Nineteen / The nineteen
Vocative सप्त - sapta नव - nava नवदश - navadaśa
O seven! / Eh seven! - O the seven! / Eh the seven! O nine! / Eh nine! - O the nine! / Eh the nine! O nineteen! / Eh nineteen! - O the nineteen! / Eh the nineteen!
Accusative सप्त - sapta नव - nava नवदश - navadaśa
To seven - To the seven To nine - To the nine To nineteen - To the nineteen
Instrumental सप्तभिः - saptabhiḥ नवभिः - navabhiḥ नवदशभिः - navadaśabhiḥ
By/through/along with/etc. seven - By/through/along with/etc. the seven By/through/along with/etc. nine - By/through/along with/etc. the nine By/through/along with/etc. nineteen - By/through/along with/etc. the nineteen
Dative सप्तभ्यः - saptabhyaḥ नवभ्यः - navabhyaḥ नवदशभ्यः - navadaśabhyaḥ
To/for/etc. seven - To/for/etc. the seven To/for/etc. nine - To/for/etc. the nine To/for/etc. nineteen - To/for/etc. the nineteen
Ablative सप्तभ्यः - saptabhyaḥ नवभ्यः - navabhyaḥ नवदशभ्यः - navadaśabhyaḥ
From/on account of/etc. seven - From/on account of/etc. the seven From/on account of/etc. nine - From/on account of/etc. the nine From/on account of/etc. nineteen - From/on account of/etc. the nineteen
Genitive सप्तानाम् - saptānām नवानाम् - navānām नवदशानाम् - navadaśānām
Of seven - Of the seven Of nine - Of the nine Of nineteen - Of the nineteen
Locative सप्तसु - saptasu नवसु - navasu नवदशसु - navadaśasu
In/on/etc. seven - In/on/etc. the seven In/on/etc. nine - In/on/etc. the nine In/on/etc. nineteen - In/on/etc. the nineteen
Some examples with five, six, eight and nineteen

A few simple examples of all that you have just learnt. I have highlighted the final result in dark red color. Of course, you should consult the above tables when necessary. Besides, be warned that I will only use four nouns (nara - man, narī - woman, pustaka - book and sthāna - place) to be qualified by the respective numerals for the sake of simplicity. Likewise, I will be using the same cases (Nominative, Instrumental and Locative) as I used previously with one, two, three and four.

See the Declension documents (in Sanskrit section) for more information on declension, please.

Examples with "pañcan" (five). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. Five men: pañca narāḥ. Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Five women: pañca naryaḥ. Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Five books: pañca pustakāni. Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With five men: pañcabhiḥ naraiḥ »» pañcabhir naraiḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» pañcabhirnaraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In five places: pañcasu sthāneṣu. Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Examples with "ṣaṣ" (six). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. Six men: ṣaṭ narāḥ »» ṣaḍ narāḥ (by the 3rd sub-rule of the 2nd Rule of Consonant Sandhi and the 7th Rule of Consonant Sandhi) »» ṣaḍnarāḥ. Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Six women: ṣaṭ naryaḥ »» ṣaḍ naryaḥ (by the 3rd sub-rule of the 2nd Rule of Consonant Sandhi and the 7th Rule of Consonant Sandhi) »» ṣaḍnaryaḥ. Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Six books: ṣaṭ pustakāni. Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With six men: ṣaḍbhiḥ naraiḥ »» ṣaḍbhir naraiḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» ṣaḍbhirnaraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In six places: ṣaṭsu sthāneṣu. Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Examples with "aṣṭan" (eight). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. Eight men: aṣṭa/aṣṭau narāḥ. Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Eight women: aṣṭa/aṣṭau naryaḥ. Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Eight books: aṣṭa/aṣṭau pustakāni. Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With eight men: astabhiḥ naraiḥ or astābhiḥ naraiḥ »» aṣṭabhir naraiḥ or aṣṭābhir naraiḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» aṣṭabhirnaraiḥ or aṣṭābhirnaraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In eight places: aṣṭasu/aṣṭāsu sthāneṣu. Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Examples with "navadaśan or navadaśan" (nineteen). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. Nineteen men: navadaśa narāḥ. Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Nineteen women: navadaśa naryaḥ. Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Nineteen books: navadaśa pustakāni. Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With nineteen men: navadaśa naraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In nineteen places: navadaśasu sthāneṣu. Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Let us study now the numbers 19 (as ekonaviṁśati, ūnaviṁśati or ekānnaviṁśati) to 99 (navanavati).

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 Declining Cardinals: 19-99 (19 as "ekonaviṁśati, ūnaviṁśati or ekānnaviṁśati", and 99 as "navanavati")

These numerals are all feminine in gender (thank God!). And they all are to be declined in singular number while the nouns being qualified by them must be in plural, of course. But the things get a little complicated because some of them end in "i" while the others end in "t". Thus, the declension of those ending in "i" follows the rules followed by nouns and adjectives ending in "i" (feminine), while the declension of those ending in "t" follows the rules followed by nouns and adjectives ending in "t" (feminine). At the moment of writing this page (01/24/2004), I have not taught you how to decline nouns and adjectives ending in "i" (feminine) and "t" (feminine) yet. Therefore, since I cannot explain that topic in detail here (I will explain it to you in Declension subsection later), you will merely have to accept my words. Trust me!, hehe.

Here you are a table showing numerals from 19 to 99 ending in "i" and "t" respectively:

Numerals (19 to 99) Ending in

19 (as ekonaviṁśati, ūnaviṁśati or ekānnaviṁśati) to 29 (as navaviṁśati)

29 (as ekonatriṁśat, ūnatriṁśat or ekānnatriṁśat) to 59 (as navapañcāśat)

59 (as ekonaṣaṣṭi, ūnaṣaṣṭi or ekānnaṣaṣṭi) to 99 (navanavati)

i (feminine)

t (feminine)

i (feminine)

See Numbers (1) (English) for more information

For the sake of exemplification, let us study now a group of six typical numerals: 19 (as ekonaviṁśati), 30 (triṁśat), 59 (as navapañcāśat), 59 (as ekonaṣaṣṭi), 80 (aśīti) and 99 (as navanavati). Also remember that all of them are to be declined in singular despite the nouns to which they qualify are declined in plural:

CASES Ekonaviṁśati (19) Triṁśat (30) Navapañcāśat (59)
Nominative एकोनविंशतिः - ekonaviṁśatiḥ त्रिंशत् - triṁśat नवपञ्चाशत् - navapañcāśat
Nineteen / The nineteen Thirty / The thirty Fifty-nine / The fifty-nine
Vocative एकोनविंशते - ekonaviṁśate त्रिंशत् - triṁśat नवपञ्चाशत् - navapañcāśat
O nineteen! / Eh nineteen! - O the nineteen! / Eh the nineteen! O thirty! / Eh thirty! - O the thirty! / Eh the thirty! O fifty-nine! / Eh fifty-nine! - O the fifty-nine! / Eh the fifty-nine!
Accusative एकोनविंशतिम् - ekonaviṁśatim त्रिंशतम् - triṁśatam नवपञ्चाशतम् - navapañcāśatam
To nineteen - To the nineteen To thirty - To the thirty To fifty-nine - To the fifty-nine
Instrumental एकोनविंशत्या - ekonaviṁśatyā त्रिंशता - triṁśatā नवपञ्चाशता - navapañcāśatā
By/through/along with/etc. nineteen - By/through/along with/etc. the nineteen By/through/along with/etc. thirty - By/through/along with/etc. the thirty By/through/along with/etc. fifty-nine - By/through/along with/etc. the fifty-nine
Dative एकोनविंशतये or एकोनविंशत्यै - ekonaviṁśataye or ekonaviṁśatyai त्रिंशते - triṁśate नवपञ्चाशते - navapañcāśate
To/for/etc. nineteen - To/for/etc. the nineteen To/for/etc. thirty - To/for/etc. the thirty To/for/etc. fifty-nine - To/for/etc. the fifty-nine
Ablative एकोनविंशतेः or एकोनविंशत्याः - ekonaviṁśateḥ or ekonaviṁśatyāḥ त्रिंशतः - triṁśataḥ नवपञ्चाशतः - navapañcāśataḥ
From/on account of/etc. nineteen - From/on account of/etc. the nineteen From/on account of/etc. thirty - From/on account of/etc. the thirty From/on account of/etc. fifty-nine - From/on account of/etc. the fifty-nine
Genitive एकोनविंशतेः or एकोनविंशत्याः - ekonaviṁśateḥ or ekonaviṁśatyāḥ त्रिंशतः - triṁśataḥ नवपञ्चाशतः - navapañcāśataḥ
Of nineteen - Of the nineteen Of thirty - Of the thirty Of fifty-nine - Of the fifty-nine
Locative एकोनविंशतौ or एकोनविंशत्याम् - ekonaviṁśatau or ekonaviṁśatyām त्रिंशति - triṁśati नवपञ्चाशति - navapañcāśati
In/on/etc. nineteen - In/on/etc. the nineteen In/on/etc. thirty - In/on/etc. the thirty In/on/etc. fifty-nine - In/on/etc. the fifty-nine
CASES Ekonaṣaṣṭi (59) Aśīti (80) Navanavati (99)
Nominative एकोनषष्टिः - ekonaṣaṣṭiḥ अशीतिः - aśītiḥ नवनवतिः - navanavatiḥ
Fifty-nine / The fifty-nine Eighty / The eighty Ninety-nine / The ninety-nine
Vocative एकोनषष्टे - ekonaṣaṣṭe अशीते - aśīte नवनवते - navanavate
O fifty-nine! / Eh fifty-nine! - O the fifty-nine! / Eh the fifty-nine! O eighty! / Eh eighty! - O the eighty! / Eh the eighty! O ninety-nine! / Eh ninety-nine! - O the ninety-nine! / Eh the ninety-nine!
Accusative एकोनषष्टिम् - ekonaṣaṣṭim अशीतिम् - aśītim नवनवतिम् - navanavatim
To fifty-nine - To the fifty-nine To eighty - To the eighty To ninety-nine - To the ninety-nine
Instrumental एकोनषष्ट्या - ekonaṣaṣṭyā अशीत्या - aśītyā नवनवत्या - navanavatyā
By/through/along with/etc. fifty-nine - By/through/along with/etc. the fifty-nine By/through/along with/etc. eighty - By/through/along with/etc. the eighty By/through/along with/etc. ninety-nine - By/through/along with/etc. the ninety-nine
Dative एकोनषष्टये or एकोनषष्ट्यै - ekonaṣaṣṭaye or ekonaṣaṣṭyai अशीतये or अशीत्यै - aśītaye or aśītyai नवनवतये or नवनवत्यै - navanavataye or navanavatyai
To/for/etc. fifty-nine - To/for/etc. the fifty-nine To/for/etc. eighty - To/for/etc. the eighty To/for/etc. ninety-nine - To/for/etc. the ninety-nine
Ablative एकोनषष्टेः or एकोनषष्ट्याः - ekonaṣaṣṭeḥ or ekonaṣaṣṭyāḥ अशीतेः or अशीत्याः - aśīteḥ or aśītyāḥ नवनवतेः or नवनवत्याः - navanavateḥ or navanavatyāḥ
From/on account of/etc. fifty-nine - From/on account of/etc. the fifty-nine From/on account of/etc. eighty - From/on account of/etc. the eighty From/on account of/etc. ninety-nine - From/on account of/etc. the ninety-nine
Genitive एकोनषष्टेः or एकोनषष्ट्याः - ekonaṣaṣṭeḥ or ekonaṣaṣṭyāḥ अशीतेः or अशीत्याः - aśīteḥ or aśītyāḥ नवनवतेः or नवनवत्याः - navanavateḥ or navanavatyāḥ
Of fifty-nine - Of the fifty-nine Of eighty - Of the eighty Of ninety-nine - Of the ninety-nine
Locative एकोनषष्टौ or एकोनषष्ट्याम् - ekonaṣaṣṭau or ekonaṣaṣṭyām अशीतौ or अशीत्याम् - aśītau or aśītyām नवनवतौ or नवनवत्याम् - navanavatau or navanavatyām
In/on/etc. fifty-nine - In/on/etc. the fifty-nine In/on/etc. eighty - In/on/etc. the eighty In/on/etc. ninety-nine - In/on/etc. the ninety-nine
Some examples with thirty, fifty-nine, eighty and ninety-nine

A few simple examples of all that you have just learnt. I have highlighted the final result in dark red color. Of course, you should consult the above tables when necessary. Besides, be warned that I will only use four nouns (nara - man, narī - woman, pustaka - book and sthāna - place) to be qualified by the respective numerals for the sake of simplicity. Likewise, I will be using the same cases (Nominative, Instrumental and Locative) as I used previously with one, two, three and four.

See the Declension documents (in Sanskrit section) for more information on declension, please.

Examples with "triṁśat" (thirty). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. Thirty men: triṁśat narāḥ »» triṁśan narāḥ (by the 6th Rule of Consonant Sandhi) »» triṁśannarāḥ. Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Thirty women: triṁśat naryaḥ »» triṁśan naryaḥ (by the 6th Rule of Consonant Sandhi) »» triṁśannaryaḥ. Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Thirty books: triṁśat pustakāni »» triṁśatpustakāni. Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With thirty men: triṁśatā naraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In thirty places: triṁśati sthāneṣu. Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Examples with "navapañcāśat/ekonaṣaṣṭi" (fifty-nine). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. Fifty-nine men: navapañcāśat narāḥ »» navapañcāśan narāḥ (by the 6th Rule of Consonant Sandhi) »» navapañcāśannarāḥ. Or else, if you use "ekonaṣaṣṭi" instead of "navapañcāśat", then: ekonaṣaṣṭiḥ narāḥ »» ekonaṣaṣṭir narāḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» ekonaṣaṣṭirnarāḥ. Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Fifty-nine women: navapañcāśat naryaḥ »» navapañcāśan naryaḥ (by the 6th Rule of Consonant Sandhi) »» navapañcāśannaryaḥ. Or else, if you use "ekonaṣaṣṭi" instead of "navapañcāśat", then: ekonaṣaṣṭiḥ naryaḥ »» ekonaṣaṣṭir naryaḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» ekonaṣaṣṭirnaryaḥ. Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Fifty-nine books: navapañcāśat pustakāni »» navapañcāśatpustakāni. Or else, if you use "ekonaṣaṣṭi" instead of "navapañcāśat", then: ekonaṣaṣṭiḥ pustakāni. Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With fifty-nine men: navapañcāśatā naraiḥ. Or else, if you use "ekonaṣaṣṭi" instead of "navapañcāśat", then: ekonaṣaṣṭyā naraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In fifty-nine places: navapañcāśati sthāneṣu. Or else, if you use "ekonaṣaṣṭi" instead of "navapañcāśat", then there are two options: ekonaṣaṣṭau sthāneṣu or ekonaṣaṣṭyām sthāneṣu »» ekonaṣaṣṭyāṁ sthāneṣu (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Examples with "aśīti" (eighty). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. Eighty men: aśītiḥ narāḥ »» aśītir narāḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» aśītirnarāḥ. Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Eighty women: aśītiḥ naryaḥ »» aśītir naryaḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» aśītirnaryaḥ. Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Eighty books: aśītiḥ pustakāni. Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With eighty men: aśītyā naraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In eighty places: aśitau sthāneṣu or else, aśītyām sthāneṣu »» aśītyāṁ sthāneṣu (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Examples with "navanavati" (ninety-nine). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. Ninety-nine men: navanavatiḥ narāḥ »» navanavatir narāḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» navanavatirnarāḥ. Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Ninety-nine women: navanavatiḥ naryaḥ »» navanavatir naryaḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» navanavatirnaryaḥ. Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Ninety-nine books: navanavatiḥ pustakāni. Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With ninety-nine men: navanavatyā naraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In ninety-nine places: navanavatau sthāneṣu or else, navanavatyām sthāneṣu »» navanavatyāṁ sthāneṣu (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Let us study now the numbers from 99 (as ekonaśata, ūnaśata or ekānnaśata) on.

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 Declining Cardinals: 99 + (99 as "ekonaśata", "ūnaśata" or "ekānnaśata")

These numerals are mostly neuter in gender (God's blessing is upon us all!). And they all are to be declined in singular number while the nouns being qualified by them must be in plural, as usual. In Numbers (1) (English) I taught you all those numbers in their crude form, do you remember? Well, if your memory is weak, here you are a table showing numerals from 99 (as ekonaśata, ūnaśata or ekānaśata) on:

Numerals (99 +) Ending in

Śata (100) and all associated numerals (e.g. 200 - 300 - 876 - 959 - etc.)

Sahasra (1,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 2,000 - 3,000 - 8,760 - 9,245 - etc.)

Ayuta (10,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 12,000 - 13,000 - 66,715 - 99,897 - etc.)

Lakṣa/Lakṣā (100,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 120,000 - 130,000 - 162,715 - etc.)

Prayuta (1,000,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 1,200,000 - 9,756,342 - etc.)

Koṭi (10,000,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 12,000,000 - 91,234,567 - etc.)

Arbuda (100,000,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 120,000,000 - 876,324,569 - etc.)

Abja (1,000,000,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 1,200,000,000 - 7,514,978,519 - etc.)

Kharva (10,000,000,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 12,000,000,000 - 98,234,637,089 - etc.)

Nikharva (100,000,000,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 924,375,124,065 - etc.)

Mahāpadma (1,000,000,000,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 8,739,857,001,238 - etc.)

Śaṅku (10,000,000,000,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 87,676,675,002,732 - etc.)

Jaladhi (100,000,000,000,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 914,899,777,453,000 - etc.)

Antya (1,000,000,000,000,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 5,897,245,656,897,098 - etc.)

Madhya (10,000,000,000,000,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 87,444,765,346,764,999 - etc.)

Parārdha (100,000,000,000,000,000) and all associated numerals (e.g. 999,674,325,764,897,555 - etc.)

a (neuter)

a (neuter)

a (neuter)

a (masc.) or ā (fem.)

a (neuter)

i (fem.)

a (neuter)

a (neuter)

a (masc./neuter)

a (masc./neuter)

a (masc./neuter)

a (masc.)

a (masc.)

a (neuter)

a (neuter)

a (neuter)

See Numbers (1) (English) for more information

As you can see, the vast majority of these "big" numerals ends in "a" (neuter). Thus, the following series of examples will contain only one of them (Sahasra - 1,000) and all those not ending in "a" (neuter) i.e. Laskṣa/Lakṣā (100,000 - masc. and fem., even though sometimes it may also assume neuter gender), Koṭi (10,000,000 - fem.), Kharva (10,000,000,000 - masc. and neuter), Nikharva (100,000,000,000 - masc. and neuter), Mahāpadma (1,000,000,000,000 - masc. and neuter), Śaṅku (10,000,000,000,000 - masc.) and Jaladhi (100,000,000,000,000 - masc.). I have taught you how to decline nouns and adjectives ending in "a" (neuter and masc.) and "ā" (fem.) in Declension (1). However, inasmuch as I have not taught you how to decline nouns and adjectives ending in "i" (fem.) and "u" (masc.) yet (01/24/2004), you will have to trust my words regarding the declension of "koṭi" and "śaṅku". Also remember that all of them are to be declined in singular despite the nouns to which they qualify are declined in plural:

CASES Sahasra (1,000)
(neuter)
Lakṣa (100,000)
(masc./rarely neuter)
Lakṣā (100,000)
(fem.)
Nominative सहस्रम् - sahasram लक्षः or लक्षम् - lakṣaḥ (masc.) or lakṣam (neuter) लक्षा - lakṣā
One thousand One hundred thousand One hundred thousand
Vocative सहस्र - sahasra लक्ष - lakṣa (masc./neuter) लक्षे - lakṣe
O one thousand! / Eh one thousand! O one hundred thousand! / Eh one hundred thousand! O one hundred thousand! / Eh one hundred thousand!
Accusative सहस्रम् - sahasram लक्षम् - lakṣam (masc./neuter) लक्षाम् - lakṣām
To one thousand To one hundred thousand To one hundred thousand
Instrumental सहस्रेण - sahasreṇa लक्षेण - lakṣeṇa (masc./neuter) लक्षया - lakṣayā
By/through/along with/etc. one thousand By/through/along with/etc. one hundred thousand By/through/along with/etc. one hundred thousand
Dative सहस्राय - sahasrāya लक्षाय - lakṣāya (masc./neuter) लक्षायै - lakṣāyai
To/for/etc. one thousand To/for/etc. one hundred thousand To/for/etc. one hundred thousand
Ablative सहस्रात् - sahasrāt लक्षात् - lakṣāt (masc./neuter) लक्षायाः - lakṣāyāḥ
From/on account of/etc. one thousand From/on account of/etc. one hundred thousand From/on account of/etc. one hundred thousand
Genitive सहस्रस्य - sahasrasya लक्षस्य - lakṣasya (masc./neuter) लक्षायाः - lakṣāyāḥ
Of one thousand Of one hundred thousand Of one hundred thousand
Locative सहस्रे - sahasre लक्षे - lakṣe (masc./neuter) लक्षायाम् - lakṣāyām
In/on/etc. one thousand In/on/etc. one hundred thousand In/on/etc. one hundred thousand
CASES Kharva (10,000,000,000)
(masc./neuter)
Nikharva (100,000,000,000)
(masc./neuter)
Mahāpadma (1,000,000,000,000)
(masc./neuter)
Nominative खर्वः or खर्वम् - kharvaḥ (masc.) or kharvam (neuter) निखर्वः or निखर्वम् - nikharvaḥ (masc.) or nikharvam (neuter) महापद्मः or महापद्मम् - mahāpadmaḥ (masc.) or mahāpadmam (neuter)
Ten thousand millions One hundred thousand millions One million millions
Vocative खर्व - kharva (masc./neuter) निखर्व - nikharva (masc./neuter) महापद्म - mahāpadma (masc./neuter)
O ten thousand millions! / Eh ten thousand millions! O one hundred thousand millions! / Eh one hundred thousand millions! O one million millions! / Eh one million millions!
Accusative खर्वम् - kharvam (masc./neuter) निखर्वम् - nikharvam (masc./neuter) महापद्मम् - mahāpadmam (masc./neuter)
To ten thousand millions To one hundred thousand millions To one million millions
Instrumental खर्वेण - kharveṇa (masc./neuter) निखर्वेण - nikharveṇa (masc./neuter) महापद्मेन - mahāpadmena (masc./neuter)
By/through/along with/etc. ten thousand millions By/through/along with/etc. one hundred thousand millions By/through/along with/etc. one million millions
Dative खर्वाय - kharvāya (masc./neuter) निखर्वाय - nikharvāya (masc./neuter) महापद्माय - mahāpadmāya (masc./neuter)
To/for/etc. ten thousand millions To/for/etc. one hundred thousand millions To/for/etc. one million millions
Ablative खर्वात् - kharvāt (masc./neuter) निखर्वात् - nikharvāt (masc./neuter) महापद्मात् - mahāpadmāt (masc./neuter)
From/on account of/etc. ten thousand millions From/on account of/etc. one hundred thousand millions From/on account of/etc. one million millions
Genitive खर्वस्य - kharvasya (masc./neuter) निखर्वस्य - nikharvasya (masc./neuter) महापद्मस्य - mahāpadmasya (masc./neuter)
Of ten thousand millions Of one hundred thousand millions Of one million millions
Locative खर्वे - kharve (masc./neuter) निखर्वे - nikharve (masc./neuter) महापद्मे - mahāpadme (masc./neuter)
In/on/etc. ten thousand millions In/on/etc. one hundred thousand millions In/on/etc. one million millions
CASES Koṭi
(10,000,000)
Śaṅku
(10,000,000,000,000)
Jaladhi
(100,000,000,000,000)
Nominative कोटिः - koṭiḥ शङ्कुः - śaṅkuḥ जलधिः - jaladhiḥ
Ten millions Ten million millions One hundred million millions
Vocative कोटे - koṭe शङ्को - śaṅko जलधे - jaladhe
O ten millions! / Eh ten millions! O ten million millions! / Eh ten million millions! O one hundred million millions! / Eh one hundred million millions!
Accusative कोटिम् - koṭim शङ्कुम् - śaṅkum जलधिम् - jaladhim
To ten millions To ten million millions To one hundred million millions
Instrumental कोट्या - koṭyā शङ्कुना - śaṅkunā जलधिना - jaladhinā
By/through/along with/etc. ten millions By/through/along with/etc. ten million millions By/through/along with/etc. one hundred million millions
Dative कोटये or कोट्यै - koṭaye or koṭyai शङ्कवे - śaṅkave जलधये- jaladhaye
To/for/etc. ten millions To/for/etc. ten million millions To/for/etc. one hundred million millions
Ablative कोटेः or कोट्याः - koṭeḥ or koṭyāḥ शङ्कोः - śaṅkoḥ जलधेः - jaladheḥ
From/on account of/etc. ten millions From/on account of/etc. ten million millions From/on account of/etc. one hundred million millions
Genitive कोटेः or कोट्याः - koṭeḥ or koṭyāḥ शङ्कोः - śaṅkoḥ जलधेः - jaladheḥ
Of ten millions Of ten million millions Of one hundred million millions
Locative कोटौ or कोट्याम् - koṭau or koṭyām शङ्कौ - śaṅkau जलधौ - jaladhau
In/on/etc. ten millions In/on/etc. ten million millions In/on/etc. one hundred million millions
Some examples with one thousand, one hundred thousand (lakṣa and Lakṣā),
ten millions and ten million millions

A few simple examples of all that you have just learnt. I have highlighted the final result in dark red color. Of course, you should consult the above tables when necessary. Besides, be warned that I will only use four nouns (nara - man, narī - woman, pustaka - book and sthāna - place) to be qualified by the respective numerals for the sake of simplicity. Likewise, I will be using the same cases (Nominative, Instrumental and Locative) as I used previously with one, two, three and four.

See the Declension documents (in Sanskrit section) for more information on declension, please.

Examples with "sahasra" (one thousand). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. One thousand men: sahasram narāḥ »» sahasraṁ narāḥ (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. One thousand women: sahasram naryaḥ »» sahasraṁ naryaḥ (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. One thousand books: sahasram pustakāni »» sahasraṁ pustakāni (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With one thousand men: sahasreṇa naraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In one thousand places: sahasre sthāneṣu. Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Examples with "lakṣa" and "lakṣā" (one hundred thousand). When a number has the three genders, one should use every form (masc., fem or neuter) with nouns agreeing in gender. That is why, I will use the masculine form (lakṣa) with masculine nouns, neuter form (lakṣa) with neuter nouns, while the feminine form (lakṣā) will be reserved only for the feminine ones. The only difference between masculine and neuter forms lies in the Nominative case, as you can see on the above table. The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. One hundred thousand men: lakṣaḥ narāḥ »» lakṣo narāḥ (by the 2nd Rule of Visarga Sandhi). Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. One hundred thousand women: lakṣā naryaḥ. Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. One hundred thousand books: lakṣaṁ pustakāni »» lakṣaṁ pustakāni (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With one hundred thousand men: lakṣeṇa naraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In one hundred thousand places: lakṣe sthāneṣu. Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Examples with "koṭi" (ten millions). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course:

  1. Ten millions men: koṭiḥ narāḥ »» koṭīr narāḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» koṭirnarāḥ. Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Ten millions women: koṭiḥ naryaḥ »» koṭir naryaḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» koṭirnaryaḥ. Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Ten millions books: koṭiḥ pustakāni. Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With ten millions men: koṭyā naraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In ten millions places: koṭau sthāneṣu or else, koṭyām sthāneṣu »» koṭyāṁ sthāneṣu (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Examples with "śaṅku" (ten million millions). The nouns (nara, narī, etc.) are declined in plural, of course. Yes, the amount of men, women, books and places will be too large. Just take it for an example, and not for something real, please:

  1. Ten million millions men: śaṅkuḥ narāḥ »» śaṅkur narāḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» śaṅkurnarāḥ. Note that "narāḥ" is the Nominative plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. Ten million millions women: śaṅkuḥ naryaḥ »» śaṅkur naryaḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» śaṅkurnaryaḥ. Note that "naryaḥ" is the Nominative plural of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. Ten million millions books: śaṅkuḥ pustakāni. Note that "pustakāni" is the Nominative plural of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. With ten million millions men: śaṅkunā naraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. In ten million millions places: śaṅkau sthāneṣu. Note that "sthāneṣu" is the Locative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place).

Oh my God, let us run away from Cardinals once and for all and go to the Ordinals.

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 Declining Ordinals

Good news! We have been showered with divine Grace by Supreme Śiva. Why? If compared to that of Cardinals, Ordinals' declension will be a piece of cake! Of course, since I am not going to write all Ordinals again now, have Numbers (2) (English) at hand, please.

All Ordinals accept the three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). When masculine or neuter, the Ordinal ends in "a" always, while almost all Ordinals end in "ī" if feminine, except "first, second and third" which end in "ā". Granted, since all Ordinals assume the three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter) and numbers (singular, dual and plural), they are to be agree in gender and number with the nouns they qualify. Here you are a simple table showing what I have just stated:

Ordinals
(just a few main numerals)
Ending in
masc/neuter fem.

1st (first)

2nd (second)

3rd (third)

4th (fourth)

5th (fifth)

6th (sixth)

7th (seventh)

8th (eighth)

9th (ninth)

10th (tenth)

...

20th (twentieth)

30th (thirtieth)

40th (fortieth)

...

100th (one hundredth)

1000th (one thousandth)

...

prathama/agrima/ādima

dvitīya

tṛtīya

caturtha

pañcama

ṣaṣṭa

saptama

aṣṭama

navama

daśama

...

viṁśa/viṁśatitama

triṁśa/triṁśattama

catvāriṁśa/catvāriṁśattama

...

śatatama

sahasratama

...

prathamā/agrimā/ādimā

dvitīyā

tṛtīyā

caturthī

pañcamī

ṣaṣṭī

saptamī

aṣṭamī

navamī

daśamī

...

viṁśī/viṁśatitamī

triṁśī/triṁśattamī

catvāriṁśī/catvāriṁśattamī

...

śatatamī

sahasratamī

...

As you can see, the Ordinals in feminine gender are simply formed by substituting "ī" for final "a" (masc./neuter), except 1st, 2nd and 3rd, which are built by protracting that very "a". Very simple indeed!
See Numbers (2) (English) for more information

So, to decline these Ordinals ending in "a" (masc./neuter) and "ā" (fem.), you have to follow the instructions I show you in Declension (1). Anyway, I will decline prathama/prathamā (1st) as an example. Besides, inasmuch as I have not taught you how to decline nouns and adjectives ending in "ī" (fem.) yet (01/24/2004), I will have to teach you now how to decline them. I am only going to decline one Ordinal ending in "ī" as a sample, obviously... say, viṁśī (20th).

Prathama (1st) - masc./neuter

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative प्रथमः or प्रथमम् - prathamaḥ (masc.) or prathamam (neuter) प्रथमौ or प्रथमे - prathamau (masc.) or prathame (neuter) प्रथमाः or प्रथमानि - prathamāḥ (masc.) or prathamāni (neuter)
First / The first The first two The first (three or more)
Vocative प्रथम - prathama (masc./neuter) प्रथमौ or प्रथमे - prathamau (masc.) or prathame (neuter) प्रथमाः or प्रथमानि - prathamāḥ (masc.) or prathamāni (neuter)
O first! / Eh first! O the first two! / Eh the first two! O the first (three or more)! / Eh the first (three or more)!
Accusative प्रथमम् - prathamam (masc./neuter) प्रथमौ or प्रथमे - prathamau (masc.) or prathame (neuter) प्रथमान् or प्रथमानि - prathamān (masc.) or prathamāni (neuter)
To the first To the first two To the first (three or more)
Instrumental प्रथमेन - prathamena (masc./neuter) प्रथमाभ्याम् - prathamābhyām (masc./neuter) प्रथमैः - prathamaiḥ (masc./neuter)
By/through/along with/etc. the first By/through/along with/etc. the first two By/through/along with/etc. the first (three or more)
Dative प्रथमाय - prathamāya (masc./neuter) प्रथमाभ्याम् - prathamābhyām (masc./neuter) प्रथमेभ्यः - prathamebhyaḥ (masc./neuter)
To/for/etc. the first To/for/etc. the first two To/for/etc. the first (three or more)
Ablative प्रथमात् - prathamāt (masc./neuter) प्रथमाभ्याम् - prathamābhyām (masc./neuter) प्रथमेभ्यः - prathamebhyaḥ (masc./neuter)
From/on account of/etc. the first From/on account of/etc. the first two From/on account of/etc. the first (three or more)
Genitive प्रथमस्य - prathamasya (masc./neuter) प्रथमयोः - prathamayoḥ (masc./neuter) प्रथमानाम् - prathamānām (masc./neuter)
Of the first Of the first two Of the first (three or more)
Locative प्रथमे - prathame (masc./neuter) प्रथमयोः - prathamayoḥ (masc./neuter) प्रथमेषु - prathameṣu (masc./neuter)
In/on/etc. the first In/on/etc. the first two In/on/etc. the first (three or more)

Prathamā (1st) - fem.

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative प्रथमा - prathamā प्रथमे - prathame प्रथमाः - prathamāḥ
First / The first The first two The first (three or more)
Vocative प्रथमे - prathame प्रथमे - prathame प्रथमाः - prathamāḥ
O first! / Eh first! O the first two! / Eh the first two! O the first (three or more)! / Eh the first (three or more)!
Accusative प्रथमाम् - prathamām प्रथमे - prathame प्रथमाः - prathamāḥ
To the first To the first two To the first (three or more)
Instrumental प्रथमया - prathamayā प्रथमाभ्याम् - prathamābhyām प्रथमाभिः - prathamābhiḥ
By/through/along with/etc. the first By/through/along with/etc. the first two By/through/along with/etc. the first (three or more)
Dative प्रथमायै - prathamāyai प्रथमाभ्याम् - prathamābhyām प्रथमाभ्यः - prathamābhyaḥ
To/for/etc. the first To/for/etc. the first two To/for/etc. the first (three or more)
Ablative प्रथमायाः - prathamāyāḥ प्रथमाभ्याम् - prathamābhyām प्रथमाभ्यः - prathamābhyaḥ
From/on account of/etc. the first From/on account of/etc. the first two From/on account of/etc. the first (three or more)
Genitive प्रथमायाः - prathamāyāḥ प्रथमयोः - prathamayoḥ प्रथमानाम् - prathamānām
Of the first Of the first two Of the first (three or more)
Locative प्रथमायाम् - prathamāyām प्रथमयोः - prathamayoḥ प्रथमासु - prathamāsu
In/on/etc. the first In/on/etc. the first two In/on/etc. the first (three or more)

Viṁśī (20th) - fem.

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative विंशी - viṁśī विंश्यौ - viṁśyau विंश्यः - viṁśyaḥ
Twentieth / The twentieth The two twentieth The twentieth (three or more)
Vocative विंशि - viṁśi विंश्यौ - viṁśyau विंश्यः - viṁśyaḥ
O the twentieth! / Eh the twentieth! O the two twentieth! / Eh the two twentieth! O the twentieth (three or more)! / Eh the twentieth (three or more)!
Accusative विंशीम् - viṁśīm विंश्यौ - viṁśyau विंशीः - viṁśīḥ
To the twentieth To the two twentieth To the twentieth (three or more)
Instrumental विंश्या - viṁśyā विंशीभ्याम् - viṁśībhyām विंशीभिः - viṁśībhiḥ
By/through/along with/etc. the twentieth By/through/along with/etc. the two twentieth By/through/along with/etc. the twentieth (three or more)
Dative विंश्यै - viṁśyai विंशीभ्याम् - viṁśībhyām विंशीभ्यः- viṁśībhyaḥ
To/for/etc. the twentieth To/for/etc. the two twentieth To/for/etc. the twentieth (three or more)
Ablative विंश्याः - viṁśyāḥ विंशीभ्याम्- viṁśībhyām विंशीभ्यः - viṁśībhyaḥ
From/on account of/etc. the twentieth From/on account of/etc. the two twentieth From/on account of/etc. the twentieth (three or more)
Genitive विंश्याः - viṁśyāḥ विंश्योः - viṁśyoḥ विंशीनाम् - viṁśīnām
Of the twentieth Of the two twentieth Of the twentieth (three or more)
Locative विंश्याम् - viṁśyām विंश्योः - viṁśyoḥ विंशीषु - viṁśīṣu
In/on/etc. the twentieth In/on/etc. the two twentieth In/on/etc. the twentieth (three or more)
Some examples with first (all genders), second (all genders),
third (all genders) and twentieth

A few simple examples of all that you have just learnt. I have highlighted the final result in dark red color. Of course, you should consult the above tables when necessary. Besides, be warned that I will only use four nouns (nara - man, narī - woman, pustaka - book and sthāna - place) to be qualified by the respective numerals for the sake of simplicity.

Obviously, when an Ordinal assumes all genders, one must make the Ordinal agree in gender with the noun to be qualified. For example, if the noun is in neuter gender, you are to use the Ordinal declined in neuter gender too. Again, if the Ordinal is only masculine, feminine or neuter, you are bound to decline it in that gender with all nouns. Got it? Good!

See the Declension documents (in Sanskrit section) for more information on declension, please.

Examples with "prathama" (first):

  1. The first man: prathamaḥ naraḥ »» prathamo naraḥ (by the 2nd Rule of Visarga Sandhi). Note that "naraḥ" is the Nominative singular of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. The first woman: prathamā narī. Note that "narī" is the Nominative singular of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. From the first two books: prathamābhyām pustakābhyām »» prathamābhyāṁ pustakābhyām (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "pustakābhyām" is the Ablative dual of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. By the first men (three or more): prathamaiḥ naraiḥ »» prathamair naraiḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» prathamairnaraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. To the first places (three or more): prathamāni sthānāni. Note that "sthānāni" is the Accusative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place). Yes, the phrase can also be translated as "the first places (three or more)" in Nominative plural, or even as a Vocative plural "oh, the first places (three or more)". However, in a real text there will be more words so that you may infer if it is an Accusative plural, a Nominative plural or even a Vocative plural, do not worry then. Granted, I added "three or more" to indicate that the declension is in plural (not dual), but you will surely drop that when translating a particular text.

Examples with "dvitīya" (second):

  1. The second man: dvitīyaḥ naraḥ »» dvitīyo naraḥ (by the 2nd Rule of Visarga Sandhi). Note that "naraḥ" is the Nominative singular of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. The second woman: dvitīyā narī. Note that "narī" is the Nominative singular of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. From the second two books: dvitīyābhyām pustakābhyām »» dvitīyābhyāṁ pustakābhyām (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "pustakābhyām" is the Ablative dual of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. By the second men (three or more): dvitīyaiḥ naraiḥ »» dvitīyair naraiḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» dvitīyairnaraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. To the second places (three or more): dvitīyāni sthānāni. Note that "sthānāni" is the Accusative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place). Yes, the phrase can also be translated as "the second places (three or more)" in Nominative plural, or even as a Vocative plural "oh, the second places (three or more)". However, in a real text there will be more words so that you may infer if it is an Accusative plural, a Nominative plural or even a Vocative plural, do not worry then. Granted, I added "three or more" to indicate that the declension is in plural (not dual), but you will surely drop that when translating a particular text.

Examples with "tṛtīya" (third):

  1. The third man: tṛtīyaḥ naraḥ »» tṛtīyo naraḥ (by the 2nd Rule of Visarga Sandhi). Note that "naraḥ" is the Nominative singular of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. The third woman: tṛtīyā narī. Note that "narī" is the Nominative singular of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. From the third two books: tṛtīyābhyām pustakābhyām »» tṛtīyābhyāṁ pustakābhyām (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "pustakābhyām" is the Ablative dual of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. By the third men (three or more): tṛtīyaiḥ naraiḥ »» tṛtīyair naraiḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» tṛtīyairnaraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. To the third places (three or more): tṛtīyāni sthānāni. Note that "sthānāni" is the Accusative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place). Yes, the phrase can also be translated as "the third places (three or more)" in Nominative plural, or even as a Vocative plural "oh, the third places (three or more)". However, in a real text there will be more words so that you may infer if it is an Accusative plural, a Nominative plural or even a Vocative plural, do not worry then. Granted, I added "three or more" to indicate that the declension is in plural (not dual), but you will surely drop that when translating a particular text.

Examples with "viṁśī" (twentieth):

  1. The twentieth man: viṁśī naraḥ. Note that "naraḥ" is the Nominative singular of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  2. The twentieth woman: viṁśī narī. Note that "narī" is the Nominative singular of the feminine noun "narī" (woman).
  3. From the two twentieth books: viṁśībhyām pustakābhyām »» viṁśībhyāṁ pustakābhyām (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "pustakābhyām" is the Ablative dual of the neuter noun "pustaka" (book).
  4. By the twentieth men (three or more): viṁśībhiḥ naraiḥ »» viṁśībhir naraiḥ (by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi) »» viṁśībhirnaraiḥ. Note that "naraiḥ" is the Instrumental plural of the masculine noun "nara" (man).
  5. To the twentieth places (three or more): viṁśīm sthānāni »» viṁśīṁ sthānāni (by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Note that "sthānāni" is the Accusative plural of the neuter noun "sthāna" (place). Yes, the phrase can also be translated as "the twentieth places (three or more)" in Nominative plural, or even as a Vocative plural "oh, the twentieth places (three or more)". However, in a real text there will be more words so that you may infer if it is an Accusative plural, a Nominative plural or even a Vocative plural, do not worry then. Granted, I added "three or more" to indicate that the declension is in plural (not dual), but you will surely drop that when translating a particular text.

Declension of Ordinals has been a piece of cake, no doubt. Let us learn now how to count in Sanskrit.

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 How to count in Sanskrit

People ask me sometimes: "How should one count in Sanskrit?". The existence of several genders makes them confused. They ignore which one should be chosen. The rule is very simple. There is an order of priority here you must follow at any cost to be successful: 1) neuter, 2) masculine and 3) feminine (sorry, ladies). Thus, if a numeral assumes just one form for all genders (e.g. pañca - five) or only one gender (e.g. koṭi - ten millions), what the heck!, you are bound to use that. However, if it has two or all genders (e.g. eka - one), you are to follow the order I specified above. Let us start... hmmm... I will put all within a table for the sake of convenience:

Number Crude form Masculine Feminine Neuter Chosen form to count
1 eka ekaḥ ekā ekam ekam
2 dvi dvau dve dve dve
3 tri trayaḥ tisraḥ trīṇi trīṇi
4 catur catvāraḥ catasraḥ catvāri catvāri
5 pañcan pañca pañca
6 ṣaṣ ṣaṭ ṣaṭ
7 saptan sapta sapta
8 aṣṭan aṣṭa or aṣṭau aṣṭa or aṣṭau
9 navan nava nava
10 daśan daśa daśa
11 ekādaśan ekādaśa ekādaśa
12 dvādaśan dvādaśa dvādaśa
13 trayodaśan trayodaśa trayodaśa
14 caturdaśan caturdaśa caturdaśa
15 pañcadaśan pañcadaśa pañcadaśa
16 ṣoḍaśan ṣoḍaśa ṣoḍaśa
17 saptadaśan saptadaśa saptadaśa
18 aṣṭādaśan aṣṭādaśa aṣṭādaśa
19 navadaśan navadaśa navadaśa
19 (as 20 minus 1)
to 99
ekonaviṁśati
or ūnaviṁśati
or ekānnaviṁśati
to navanavati
- ekonaviṁśatiḥ
or ūnaviṁśatiḥ
or ekānnaviṁśatiḥ
to navanavatiḥ
- ekonaviṁśatiḥ
or ūnaviṁśatiḥ
or ekānaviṁśatiḥ
to navanavatiḥ
99
(as 100 minus 1)
ekonaśata
or ūnaśata
or ekānnaśata
- - ekonaśatam
or ūnaśatam
or ekānnaśatam
ekonaśatam
or ūnaśatam
or ekānnaśatam
I will list the big numerals only. Obviously, all numbers derived from them will contain them at the end (e.g. navaśata - 900 contains śata - 100 at the end and consequently it goes the same way as śata when counted)
100 śata - - śatam śatam
1,000 sahasra - - sahasram sahasram
10,000 ayuta - - ayutam ayutam
100,000 lakṣa lakṣaḥ lakṣā lakṣam (rarely) lakṣam
1,000,000 prayuta - - prayutam prayutam
10,000,000 koṭi - koṭiḥ - koṭiḥ
100,000,000 arbuda - - arbudam arbudam
1,000,000,000 abja - - abjam abjam
10,000,000,000 kharva kharvaḥ - kharvam kharvam
100,000,000,000 nikharva nikharvaḥ - nikharvam nikharvam
1,000,000,000,000 mahāpadma mahāpadmaḥ - mahāpadmam mahāpadmam
10,000,000,000,000 śaṅku śaṅkuḥ - - śaṅkuḥ
100,000,000,000,000 jaladhi jaladhiḥ - - jaladhiḥ
1,000,000,000,000,000 antya - - antyam antyam
10,000,000,000,000,000 madhya - - madhyam madhyam
100,000,000,000,000,000 parārdha - - parārdham parārdham

Therefore, use the last column to count in Sanskrit properly: (1) ekam, (2) dve, (3) trīṇi, (4) catvāri, (5) pañca, (6) ṣaṭ, (7) sapta, (8) aṣṭa or aṣṭau, (9) nava, (10) daśa, etc. and be happy.

Let us go on!

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 And zero?

Well, zero can be written in three different ways: śūnya (commonly used), bindu (rarely used) and vaṭa (rarely used). All of them, except "śūnya" which is neuter, are masculine in gender. By far, the term "śūnya" is the most used one to designate zero. This word is to be declined like any other adjective ending in "a" (neuter). For the most part, it is used isolatedly, that is, without qualifying any nouns. Theoretically, it might qualify a noun (e.g. zero men - śūnyāni narāḥ), but I have not seen it to occur in practice in my entire lifetime. Maybe there are some rare examples, I do not know, but you will not probably come across that situation, be sure.

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative शून्यम् - śūnyam शून्ये - śūnye शून्यानि - śūnyāni
Zero Two zeros / The two zeros The zeros (three or more)
Vocative शून्य - śūnya शून्ये - śūnye शून्यानि - śūnyāni
O zero! / Eh zero! O two zeros! / Eh two zeros! O the zeros (three or more)! / Eh the zeros (three or more)!
Accusative शून्यम् - śūnyam शून्ये - śūnye शून्यानि - śūnyāni
To zero To the two zeros To the zeros (three or more)
Instrumental शून्येन - śūnyena शून्याभ्याम् - śūnyābhyām शून्यैः - śūnyaiḥ
By/through/along with/etc. zero By/through/along with/etc. the two zeros By/through/along with/etc. the zeros (three or more)
Dative शून्याय - śūnyāya शून्याभ्याम् - śūnyābhyām शून्येभ्यः - śūnyebhyaḥ
To/for/etc. zero To/for/etc. the two zeros To/for/etc. the zeros (three or more)
Ablative शून्यात् - śūnyāt शून्याभ्याम् - śūnyābhyām शून्येभ्यः - śūnyebhyaḥ
From/on account of/etc. zero From/on account of/etc. the two zeros From/on account of/etc. the zeros (three or more)
Genitive शून्यस्य - śūnyasya शून्ययोः - śūnyayoḥ शून्यानाम् - śūnyānām
Of zero Of the two zeros Of the zeros (three or more)
Locative शून्ये - śūnye शून्ययोः - śūnyayoḥ शून्येषु - śūnyeṣu
In/on/etc. zero In/on/etc. the two zeros In/on/etc. the zeros (three or more)

Well, nothing else for now. Maybe it was funny for you to read it and learn something new, but for me it was funny only for the first ten hours (no kidding!). I am finishing it now, after more than twenty hours of hard work... and I am really tired. Now, I will take a rest to allow my exhausted intellect to regain its lost vigor. See you!

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 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.