Sanskrit & Sánscrito (English-Home)

JavaScript is disabled! Check this link!


 Learning Sanskrit - Pronunciation 7

Aphorisms (Section II of Pātañjalayogasūtra-s)


 Introduction

Hi, this is Gabriel Pradīpaka once again. Here you are 55 aphorisms, which form the second out of four sections of the Patañjali's Yogasūtra-s (the primordial scripture in Yoga). You will be able to listen to Sanskrit language directly. Try to repeat the aphorism along with me. Besides, you will find a complete translation of the aphorism. So, this important document will help you to write and pronounce Sanskrit properly. Additionally, if you wish, you will start learning a celebrated scripture belonging to Yoga system. But remember that the meaning of these abstruse aphorisms is not given here. Only their translation is shown. If you are not interested in Yoga or even in Indian philosophy, just use the aphorisms to practice Sanskrit.

There is a measure unit called 'mātrā' or "time gap needed to pronounce a short vowel (like 'a')". Short vowels (a, i, u, ṛ, ḷ) last 1 mātrā, while long vowels (ā, ī, ū, ṝ) and diphthongs (e, ai, o, au) last 2 mātrā-s. In turn, Anusvāra ('ṁ') and Visarga ('ḥ') last 1/2 mātrā.

Have three documents at hand (print them if you can): Transliterating (2) (English), Sanskrit Alphabet and Conjuncts. You will need them very often.

To download the sounds, click on the respective icon placed below each of the aphorisms and then select the adequate choice. If you have the Quick Time plugin installed, it is possible that you cannot download the sound directly. To work this problem around, right-click on the icon and select "Save link as..." or something like that (the statements vary according to the different browsers). That is it! Obviously, you can alternately uninstall the Quick Time plugin, but maybe you might need it for some other things. So, it is your choice, not mine.

The sound files are "properly" named, of course, so that you can create, say, four folders (one for every section of this scripture), and quickly find the right sound you need to hear.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

top


 Second Section : On practice

तपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि क्रियायोगः॥१॥
Tapaḥsvādhyāyeśvarapraṇidhānāni kriyāyogaḥ||1||

Austerity or Penance (tapas), Study of scriptures and Chanting of mantra-s (svādhyāya) (and) Devotion --praṇidhāna-- (praṇidhānāni) to the (Supreme) Lord (īśvara) (are) Kriyāyoga (kriyāyogaḥ)||1||


समाधिभावनार्थः क्लेशतनूकरणार्थश्च॥२॥
Samādhibhāvanārthaḥ kleśatanūkaraṇārthaśca||2||

(Kriyāyoga should be practiced) for (arthaḥ... arthaḥ) producing (bhāvana) Samādhi or Perfect Concentration (samādhi) and (ca) attenuating (tanūkaraṇa) the Kleśa-s (kleśa)||2||


अविद्यास्मितारागद्वेषाभिनिवेशाः पञ्च क्लेशाः॥३॥
Avidyāsmitārāgadveṣābhiniveśāḥ pañca kleśāḥ||3||

Ignorance (in the form of a misapprehension about Reality) (avidyā), egoism (in the form of an erroneous identification of the Self with the intellect) (asmitā), attachment (rāga), aversion (dveṣa) and fear of death (which is derived from clinging ignorantly to life) --abhiniveśa-- (abhiniveśāḥ) are the five (pañca) Kleśa-s or Afflictions (kleśāḥ)||3||


अविद्या क्षेत्रमुत्तरेषां प्रसुप्ततनुविच्छिन्नोदाराणाम्॥४॥
Avidyā kṣetramuttareṣāṁ prasuptatanuvicchinnodārāṇām||4||

Ignorance (in the form of a misapprehension about Reality) (avidyā) is the (breeding) field or ground (kṣetram) for the subsequent (four Kleśa-s) (uttareṣām) (whether they be) dormant (prasupta), attenuated (tanu), interrupted (vicchinna) or active --udāra-- (udārāṇām)||4||


अनित्याशुचिदुःखानात्मसु नित्यशुचिसुखात्मख्यातिरविद्या॥५॥
Anityāśuciduḥkhānātmasu nityaśucisukhātmakhyātiravidyā||5||

Ignorance (avidyā) is to consider (khyātiḥ) as everlasting (nitya) what is not everlasting (anitya), as pure (śuci) what is not pure (aśuci), as pleasure (or "pleasant") (sukha) what is pain (or "unpleasant") (duḥkha) and as the Self (ātma) what is the not-Self --anātma-- (anātmasu)||5||


दृग्दर्शनशक्त्योरेकात्मतेवास्मिता॥६॥
Dṛgdarśanaśaktyorekātmatevāsmitā||6||

Egoism (asmitā) is tantamount (iva) to the identification (ekātmatā) of the Cognizant or Knowing (dṛk) Power --śakteḥ or śaktyāḥ--1 (śaktyoḥ) --i.e. "Puruṣa or the Absolute Consciousness"-- with the cognitive (darśana) power --śakteḥ or śaktyāḥ--2 (śaktyoḥ) --i.e. "Buddhi or intellect"--||6||

1 "śaktyoḥ" means really "of the two powers" (Genitive Dual of "śakti" --power--). However, I had to translate it in singular for the sake of convenience. Nevertheless, I have also given the respective forms for the Genitive Singular of "śakti", that is, "śakteḥ or śaktyāḥ" --of the power--, for the sake of clarification.
2 Idem.


सुखानुशयी रागः॥७॥
Sukhānuśayī rāgaḥ||7||

Attachment (rāgaḥ) is that which results (anuśayī) from pleasure (sukha); --i.e. "Attachment is the modification that is forged by the remembrance of enjoyed pleasure"--||7||


दुःखानुशयी द्वेषः॥८॥
Duḥkhānuśayī dveṣaḥ||8||

Aversion (dveṣaḥ) is that which results (anuśayī) from pain or sorrow (duḥkha); --i.e. "Aversion is the modification that is forged by the experience of misery"--||8||


स्वरसवाही विदुषोऽपि तथारूढोऽभिनिवेशः॥९॥
Svarasavāhī viduṣo'pi tathārūḍho'bhiniveśaḥ||9||

The inborn (svarasavāhī) fear of death (abhiniveśaḥ) is established (ārūḍhaḥ) in like manner (in everyone) (tathā), even (api) in the wise (viduṣaḥ); --i.e. "Fear of death may be found in the ignorant as well as in the learned people"--||9||


ते प्रतिप्रसवहेयाः सूक्ष्माः॥१०॥
Te pratiprasavaheyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ||10||

Those (te) subtle (Kleśa-s or Afflictions) (sūkṣmāḥ) are to be abandoned or forsaken (heyāḥ) by means of the cessation of (mental) production (pratiprasava)||10||

 


ध्यानहेयास्तद्वृत्तयः॥११॥
Dhyānaheyāstadvṛttayaḥ||11||

The (afflictive) modifications (vṛttayaḥ) of that --i.e. "of the abovementioned Kleśa-s or Afflictions"-- (tad) are to be abandoned or forsaken (heyāḥ) through meditation (dhyāna)||11||


 क्लेशमूलः कर्माशयो दृष्टादृष्टजन्मवेदनीयः॥१२॥
Kleśamūlaḥ karmāśayo dṛṣṭādṛṣṭajanmavedanīyaḥ||12||

Latent impression of action (karma-āśayaḥ), which is based (mūlaḥ) upon Kleśa-s or Afflictions (kleśa), becomes manifest (vedanīyaḥ) in the present life (dṛṣṭa... janma) or in a future life (adṛṣṭajanma)||12||


सति मूले तद्विपाको जात्यायुर्भोगाः॥१३॥
Sati mūle tadvipāko jātyāyurbhogāḥ||13||

As long as that --i.e. "Kleśa-s or Afflictions"-- remains (sati) at the root (mūle), the consequence or result (vipākaḥ) of it (tad) is birth (jāti), span of life (āyus) and experience --bhoga-- (bhogāḥ)||13||


ते ह्लादपरितापफलाः पुण्यापुण्यहेतुत्वात्॥१४॥
Te hlādaparitāpaphalāḥ puṇyāpuṇyahetutvāt||14||

On account (hetutvāt) of virtue (puṇya) and vice (apuṇya), those --i.e. "birth, span of life and experience"-- (te) (appear as) the fruits (phalāḥ) of pleasure (hlāda) or pain (paritāpa), (respectively)||14||


परिणामतापसंस्कारदुःखैर्गुणवृत्तिविरोधाच्च दुःखमेव सर्वं विवेकिनः॥१५॥
Pariṇāmatāpasaṁskāraduḥkhairguṇavṛttivirodhācca duḥkhameva sarvaṁ vivekinaḥ||15||

For discerning people (vivekinaḥ), everything (sarvam) is indeed (considered to be) (eva) painful (duḥkham) because of the sufferings (duḥkhaiḥ) (derived from) the results or consequences (of one's own actions) (pariṇāma), (from) the sorrowful experiences (tāpa) (and from) the latent impressions (saṁskāra), and also (ca) due to the (mutual) opposition (virodhāt) of the modifications (vṛtti) of the Guṇa-s (or qualities of Pradhāna1) (guṇa)||15||

1 "Pradhāna" is Prakṛti.


हेयं दुःखमनागतम्॥१६॥
Heyaṁ duḥkhamanāgatam||16||

Future (anāgatam) pain (duḥkham) is to be abandoned or forsaken (heyam)||16||


द्रष्टृदृश्ययोः संयोगो हेयहेतुः॥१७॥
Draṣṭṛdṛśyayoḥ saṁyogo heyahetuḥ||17||

The union (saṁyogaḥ) of the "Seer" --i.e. "of the Subject"-- (draṣṭṛ) with the "seen" (or knowable) --i.e. "with the animate or inanimate object" or "dṛśya"-- (dṛśyayoḥ) is the cause (hetuḥ) of that which is to be abandoned or forsaken (heya)||17||


प्रकाशक्रियास्थितिशीलं भूतेन्द्रियात्मकं भोगापवर्गार्थं दृश्यम्॥१८॥
Prakāśakriyāsthitiśīlaṁ bhūtendriyātmakaṁ bhogāpavargārthaṁ dṛśyam||18||

The "knowable" --i.e. "the object"-- (dṛśyam) is by nature (śīlam) sentient (prakāśa), mutable (kriyā) and inert (sthiti). (Secondly,) it consists (ātmakam) of (subtle and gross) elements (bhūta) (and) Indriya-s --i.e. "Powers of perceiving (Jñānendriya-s)" along with "Powers of action (Karmendriya-s)"-- (indriya). (Lastly,) it is for the sake (artham) of experience (bhoga) and Liberation (apavarga)||18||


विशेषाविशेषलिङ्गमात्रालिङ्गानि गुणपर्वाणि॥१९॥
Viśeṣāviśeṣaliṅgamātrāliṅgāni guṇaparvāṇi||19||

The states of mutation (parvāṇi) of the Guṇa-s (or qualities of Pradhāna1) (guṇa) (are): "diversified" (viśeṣa), "undiversified" (aviśeṣa), "indicator-only" (liṅgamātra) and "one which is with no indication or mark" --aliṅga-- (aliṅgāni)||19||

1 "Pradhāna" is a synonymous with Prakṛti.


द्रष्टा दृशिमात्रः शुद्धोऽपि प्रत्ययानुपश्यः॥२०॥
Draṣṭā dṛśimātraḥ śuddho'pi pratyayānupaśyaḥ||20||

The Seer (draṣṭā) is only (mātraḥ) a Witness --i.e. "He is an absolute Knower and completely devoid of Guṇa-s and subsequent mutation"-- (dṛśi) who although (api) pure (śuddhaḥ), beholds (anupaśyaḥ) the mental modifications (pratyaya)||20||


तदर्थ एव दृश्यस्यात्मा॥२१॥
Tadartha eva dṛśyasyātmā||21||

The nature (ātmā) of the knowable (dṛśyasya) is really (eva) (to be) the object (of perception) (arthaḥ) of That --i.e. "of Puruṣa, the Absolute Knower"-- (tad)||21||


कृतार्थं प्रति नष्टमप्यनष्टं तदन्यसाधारणत्वात्॥२२॥
Kṛtārthaṁ prati naṣṭamapyanaṣṭaṁ tadanyasādhāraṇatvāt||22||

Even though (api) disappeared (naṣṭam) with regard (prati) to one (Puruṣa) who has accomplished his purpose (with it) (kṛta-artham), that --i.e. "the object or knowable"-- (tad) does not (really) disappear (anaṣṭam) because of being common (sādhāraṇatvāt) to others (anya) (too) --i.e. "other Puruṣa-s also might use it even after its having been utilized by one of them previously"--||22||


 स्वस्वामिशक्त्योः स्वरूपोपलब्धिहेतुः संयोगः॥२३॥
Svasvāmiśaktyoḥ svarūpopalabdhihetuḥ saṁyogaḥ||23||

Union or alliance (saṁyogaḥ) is the cause (hetuḥ) for realizing (upalabdhi) the true nature (sva-rūpa) of the two powers (śaktyoḥ) (called) "object --as property--" (sva) (and) "subject --as owner--" (svāmi)||23||


तस्य हेतुरविद्या॥२४॥
Tasya heturavidyā||24||

Ignorance (avidyā) is the cause (hetuḥ) of that (union or alliance) (tasya)||24||


तदभावात्संयोगाभावो हानं तद्दृशेः कैवल्यम्॥२५॥
Tadabhāvātsaṁyogābhāvo hānaṁ taddṛśeḥ kaivalyam||25||

The absence (abhāvaḥ) of union or alliance (saṁyoga) arising from the absence (abhāvāt) of that --i.e. "of Adarśana or lack of discriminative knowledge or real discernment about Reality"-- (tad) is Kaivalya (kaivalyam) or the state of Emancipation (hānam) of that (tad) (absolute) Knower (dṛśeḥ) (known as Puruṣa)||25||


विवेकख्यातिरविप्लवा हानोपायः॥२६॥
Vivekakhyātiraviplavā hānopāyaḥ||26||

The means (upāyaḥ) of Liberation (hāna) is discriminative (viveka) knowledge (khyātiḥ) which is completely devoid of confusion or disorder (aviplavā)||26||


तस्य सप्तधा प्रान्तभूमिः प्रज्ञा॥२७॥
Tasya saptadhā prāntabhūmiḥ prajñā||27||

A seven-fold (saptadhā) (and) ultimate (prāntabhūmiḥ) deep understanding (prajñā) (comes) to that (Yogī who has attained discriminative knowledge) (tasya)||27||


योगाङ्गानुष्ठानादशुद्धिक्षये ज्ञानदीप्तिराविवेकख्यातेः॥२८॥
Yogāṅgānuṣṭhānādaśuddhikṣaye jñānadīptirāvivekakhyāteḥ||28||

On the destruction (kṣaye) of impurity (aśuddhi) through the practice (anuṣṭhānāt) of the limbs (aṅga) of Yoga (yoga), (there emerges) the Light (dīptiḥ) of Knowledge (jñāna) culminating (ā) in discriminative (viveka) knowledge (khyāteḥ)||28||


यमनियमासनप्राणायामप्रत्याहारधारणाध्यानसमाधयोऽष्टावङ्गानि॥२९॥
Yamaniyamāsanaprāṇāyāmapratyāhāradhāraṇādhyānasamādhayo'ṣṭāvaṅgāni||29||

Yama (yama), Niyama (niyama), Āsana (āsana), Prāṇāyāma (prāṇāyāma), Pratyāhāra (pratyāhāra), Dhāraṇā (dhāraṇā), Dhyāna (dhyāna) (and) Samādhi --samādhi-- (samādhayaḥ) (are) the eight (aṣṭau) limbs --aṅga-- (of Yoga) (aṅgāni) --after this statement, Patañjali will describe each of them in detail--||29||


अहिंसासत्यास्तेयब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहा यमाः॥३०॥
Ahiṁsāsatyāsteyabrahmacaryāparigrahā yamāḥ||30||

Non-injury --harmlessness-- (ahiṁsā), Veracity --truthfulness-- (satya), Abstention from stealing (asteya), Continence --dwelling in Brahma-- (brahmacarya) and Non-possession --abstinence from avariciousness/covetousness; aparigraha-- (aparigrahāḥ) (are the five) Yama-s or Restraints (yamāḥ)||30||


जातिदेशकालसमयानवच्छिन्नाः सार्वभौमा महाव्रतम्॥३१॥
Jātideśakālasamayānavacchinnāḥ sārvabhaumā mahāvratam||31||

(Those Yama-s or Restraints turn into) a great (mahā) vow (vratam) (when they become) universal (sārvabhaumāḥ) and unrestricted (anavacchinnāḥ) by (any consideration of) class (jāti), place (deśa), time (kāla) or customary duty --"established custom and conventional rule or usage" are also valid translations for "samaya"-- (samaya)||31||


शौचसन्तोषतपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः॥३२॥
Śaucasantoṣatapaḥsvādhyāyeśvarapraṇidhānāni niyamāḥ||32||

Cleanliness (śauca), Contentment (santoṣa), Austerity or Penance (tapas), Study and Recitation of Sacred Scriptures (svādhyāya), and Devotion --praṇidhāna-- (praṇidhānāni) to the (Supreme) Lord (īśvara) (are the five) Niyama-s or Observances (niyamāḥ)||32||


वितर्कबाधने प्रतिपक्षभावनम्॥३३॥
Vitarkabādhane pratipakṣabhāvanam||33||

On the inhibition (bādhane) (of those Yama-s and Niyama-s) by (erroneous) ways of thinking and feeling (vitarka), (a Yogī should cultivate) contemplation (bhāvanam) on the opposites (pratipakṣa)||33||


 वितर्का हिंसादयः कृतकारितानुमोदिता लोभक्रोधमोहपूर्वका मृदुमध्याधिमात्रा दुःखाज्ञानानन्तफला इति प्रतिपक्षभावनम्॥३४॥
Vitarkā hiṁsādayaḥ kṛtakāritānumoditā lobhakrodhamohapūrvakā mṛdumadhyādhimātrā duḥkhājñānānantaphalā iti pratipakṣabhāvanam||34||

(Such actions as) injury (hiṁsā), etc. (ādayaḥ) proceeding from (erroneous) ways of thinking and feeling (vitarkāḥ) (are as follows): (I) those which are performed by oneself (kṛta), got done by another (kārita) or approved --anumodita-- (anumoditāḥ); (II) those which are preceded (pūrvakāḥ) (either) by covetousness (lobha), wrath (krodha), or delusion (moha). (Moreover, the aforesaid actions can be either) mild (mṛdu), moderate (madhya) or intense --adhimātra-- (adhimātrāḥ). "(They are) the unending (ananta) fruits or consequences (phalāḥ) (resulting from) pain (duḥkha) (and) ignorance (ajñāna)" --"iti" stands for inverted commas-- is the opposite (pratipakṣa) thought (bhāvanam)||34||


अहिंसाप्रतिष्ठायां तत्सन्निधौ वैरत्यागः॥३५॥
Ahiṁsāpratiṣṭhāyāṁ tatsannidhau vairatyāgaḥ||35||

On the establishment (pratiṣṭhāyām) of Ahiṁsā or Non-injury (ahiṁsā) (in a Yogī, there is) cessation (tyāgaḥ) of hostility (vaira) (in one) coming close (sannidhau) to him (tad)||35||


सत्यप्रतिष्ठायां क्रियाफलाश्रयत्वम्॥३६॥
Satyapratiṣṭhāyāṁ kriyāphalāśrayatvam||36||

On the establishment (pratiṣṭhāyām) of Satya or Truthfulness (satya) (in the Yogī), a state of connection (āśrayatvam) between (his) actions --as the general idea expressed by any verb-- (kriyā) and the (resulting) fruits or consequences (phala) (arises) --i.e. "all that the abovementioned Yogī says will come true in the long run"--||36||


अस्तेयप्रतिष्ठायां सर्वरत्नोपस्थानम्॥३७॥
Asteyapratiṣṭhāyāṁ sarvaratnopasthānam||37||

On the establishment (pratiṣṭhāyām) of Asteya or Non-stealing (asteya) (in the Yogī), all (sarva) jewels (ratna) stand near in order to serve (upasthānam) (him)||37||


ब्रह्मचर्यप्रतिष्ठायां वीर्यलाभः॥३८॥
Brahmacaryapratiṣṭhāyāṁ vīryalābhaḥ||38||

On the establishment (pratiṣṭhāyām) of Brahmacarya or Continence (brahmacarya) (in that Yogī, there is) acquisition (lābhaḥ) of Vīrya --lit. "energy, vigor, stamina, strength, etc."-- (vīrya)||38||


अपरिग्रहस्थैर्ये जन्मकथन्तासम्बोधः॥३९॥
Aparigrahasthairye janmakathantāsambodhaḥ||39||

When (that very Yogī) stands firmly (sthairye) in Aparigraha or Non-possession (aparigraha), full knowledge (sambodhaḥ) of "the how, the what state?" (kathantā) about (his past, present and future) existences (janma) (arises)||39||


शौचात्स्वाङ्गजुगुप्सा परैरसंसर्गः॥४०॥
Śaucātsvāṅgajugupsā parairasaṁsargaḥ||40||

From Śauca or Cleanliness (śaucāt), dislike (jugupsā) toward one's own (sva) body (aṅga) (arises, and consequently) unconcernedness to contact (asaṁsargaḥ) with other (bodies) (paraiḥ) (is also developed)||40||


सत्त्वशुद्धिसौमनस्यैकाग्र्येन्द्रियजयात्मदर्शनयोग्यत्वानि च॥४१॥
Sattvaśuddhisaumanasyaikāgryendriyajayātmadarśanayogyatvāni ca||41||

(Besides, from Śauca or Cleanliness,) purity (śuddhi) of nature or disposition (sattva), satisfaction of mind (saumanasya), one-pointedness (aikāgrya), conquest (jaya) of the Indriya-s --5 Jñānendriya-s or powers of perception, and 5 Karmendriya-s or powers of action-- (indriya) (and) fitness or ability --yogyatva-- (yogyatvāni) for perceiving (darśana) the Self (ātma), (are) also (ca) (developed)||41||


सन्तोषादनुत्तमसुखलाभः॥४२॥
Santoṣādanuttamasukhalābhaḥ||42||

From Santoṣa or Contentment (santoṣāt); (there is) acquisition (lābhaḥ) of unsurpassed (anuttama) happiness (sukha)||42||


कायेन्द्रियसिद्धिरशुद्धिक्षयात्तपसः॥४३॥
Kāyendriyasiddhiraśuddhikṣayāttapasaḥ||43||

Perfection (siddhiḥ) of body (kāya) and Indriya-s --5 Jñānendriya-s or powers of perception, and 5 Karmendriya-s or powers of action-- (indriya) (is acquired) through Tapas or Austerity (tapasaḥ), which brings about destruction (kṣayāt) of impurities (aśuddhi)||43||


स्वाध्यायादिष्टदेवतासम्प्रयोगः॥४४॥
Svādhyāyādiṣṭadevatāsamprayogaḥ||44||

Union or communion (samprayogaḥ) with the desired or chosen (iṣṭa) deity (devatā) (is obtained) from Svādhyāya or Study and Recitation of Sacred Scriptures (svādhyāyāt)||44||


 समाधिसिद्धिरीश्वरप्रणिधानात्॥४५॥
Samādhisiddhirīśvarapraṇidhānāt||45||

Perfection or complete attainment (siddhiḥ) of Samādhi or Perfect Concentration (samādhi) (is achieved) through devotion (praṇidhānāt) to the Lord (īśvara)||45||


स्थिरसुखमासनम्॥४६॥
Sthirasukhamāsanam||46||

Posture (āsanam) (should be) firm (sthira) and agreeable --pleasant-- (sukham)||46||


प्रयत्नशैथिल्यानन्तसमापत्तिभ्याम्॥४७॥
Prayatnaśaithilyānantasamāpattibhyām||47||

By means of relaxation (śaithilya) of effort (prayatna) and absorption --samāpatti-- (samāpattibhyām) in the infinite --i.e. "in the infinite space around"-- (ananta) (Āsana or Posture is perfected)||47||


ततो द्वन्द्वानभिघातः॥४८॥
Tato dvandvānabhighātaḥ||48||

From that (tatas), (there is) immunity (anabhighātaḥ) with regard to the pairs of opposites (dvandva)||48||


तस्मिन्सति श्वासप्रश्वासयोर्गतिविच्छेदः प्राणायामः॥४९॥
Tasminsati śvāsapraśvāsayorgativicchedaḥ prāṇāyāmaḥ||49||

Once that (tasmin) (Āsana or Posture) has been (perfected) (sati), Prāṇāyāma (prāṇāyāmaḥ), (which) is the suspension (vicchedaḥ) of the flow (gati) of inhalation (śvāsa) and exhalation --praśvāsa-- (praśvāsayoḥ), (should be developed)||49||


वाह्याभ्यन्तरस्तम्भवृत्तिः देशकालसङ्ख्याभिः परिदृष्टो दीर्घसूक्ष्मः॥५०॥
Vāhyābhyantarastambhavṛttirdeśakālasaṅkhyābhiḥ paridṛṣṭo dīrghasūkṣmaḥ||50||

(Prāṇāyāma) has (three) Operation(s) (vṛttiḥ): (1) External (vāhya), (2) Internal (ābhyantara) and (3) Suppression (stambha). (And when Prāṇāyāma is) observed (paridṛṣṭaḥ) according to space (deśa), time (kāla) and number --saṅkhyā-- (saṅkhyābhiḥ), it becomes long (dīrgha) and subtle (sūkṣmaḥ)||50||


वाह्याभ्यन्तरविषयाक्षेपी चतुर्थः॥५१॥
Vāhyābhyantaraviṣayākṣepī caturthaḥ||51||

The fourth (kind of Prāṇāyāma) (caturthaḥ) transcends or excels (ākṣepī) the sphere of influence (viṣaya) of External (vāhya) and Internal (ābhyantara) (Operations)||51||


ततः क्षीयते प्रकाशावरणम्॥५२॥
Tataḥ kṣīyate prakāśāvaraṇam||52||

Through that (tatas), the veil (āvaraṇam) over Prakāśa --i.e. "over the revelation of true knowledge"-- (prakāśa) is attenuated (kṣīyate)||52||


धारणासु च योग्यता मनसः॥५३॥
Dhāraṇāsu ca yogyatā manasaḥ||53||

Mental (manasaḥ) fitness or aptitude (yogyatā) for the dhāraṇā-s or concentration practices (dhāraṇāsu) (is) also (ca) (developed)||53||


स्वविषयासम्प्रयोगे चित्तस्य स्वरूपानुकार इवेन्द्रियाणां प्रत्याहारः॥५४॥
Svaviṣayāsamprayoge cittasya svarūpānukāra ivendriyāṇāṁ pratyāhāraḥ||54||

Pratyāhāra or the Withdrawal (pratyāhāraḥ) of Indriya-s --5 Jñānendriya-s or powers of perception, and 5 Karmendriya-s or powers of action-- (indriyāṇām) (is), as it were (iva), a following (anukāraḥ) the essential nature (sva-rūpa) of mind (cittasya) (by those very Indriya-s), when separated (asamprayoge) from their (corresponding) (sva) objects (viṣaya)||54||


ततः परमा वश्यतेन्द्रियाणाम्॥५५॥
Tataḥ paramā vaśyatendriyāṇām||55||

From that (Pratyāhāra or Withdrawal) (tatas), supreme (paramā) mastery or control (vaśyatā) of the Indriya-s --5 Jñānendriya-s or powers of perception, and 5 Karmendriya-s or powers of action-- (indriyāṇām) (arises)||55||

Here concludes the Second Section dealing with practice

top


 Concluding remarks

A second document full of Yoga aphorisms in Sanskrit. Use it to keep learning Sanskrit language. Listen to the aphorisms over and over again, and then repeat them along with me. This practice will make sure that you are pronouncing Sanskrit in a proper way.

This is the second document of the series dedicated to the Pātañjalayogasūtra-s. Next document will deal with the Section III known as "Supernatural powers". Best wishes to you and be happy.

top


 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.